Clovis Culture

The Clovis culture (sometimes referred to as the Llano culture) is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named after distinct stone tools that were found at sites near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s. The Clovis culture appears around 11,500 RCYBP (radiocarbon years before present), at the end of the last glacial period, characterized by the manufacture of "Clovis points" and distinctive bone and ivory tools. Archaeologists' most precise determinations at present suggest that this radiocarbon age is equal to roughly 13,500 to 13,000 calendar years ago.

The Clovis culture was replaced by several more localized regional cultures from the time of the Younger Dryas cold climate period onward. Post-Clovis cultures include the Folsom tradition, Gainey, Suwannee-Simpson, Plainview-Goshen, Cumberland, and Redstone. Each of these is commonly thought to derive directly from Clovis, in some cases apparently differing only in the length of the fluting on their projectile points. Although this is generally held to be the result of normal cultural change through time, numerous other reasons have been suggested to be the driving force for the observed changes in the archaeological record, such as an extraterrestrial impact event or post-glacial climate change with numerous faunal extinctions.

After the discovery of several Clovis sites in western North America in the 1930s, the Clovis people came to be regarded as the first human inhabitants of the New World. Clovis people were considered to be the ancestors of all the indigenous cultures of North and South America. However, this theory has been disproven, in the opinion of many archaeologists, by several archaeological discoveries, including sites like Cactus Hill in Virginia, Paisley Caves in the Summer Lake Basin of Oregon, the Topper site in Allendale County, South Carolina, Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Pennsylvania, the Friedkin site in Texas, Cueva Fell in Chile and, especially, Monte Verde, also in Chile. The claim to the oldest human archaeological site known in the Americas belongs to the Pedra Furada human remains and hearths, a site that precedes the Clovis culture and the other sites already mentioned by 19,000 to 30,000 years, but this discovery has become an issue of contention between North American archaeologists and their South American and European counterparts. In American archaeology most dates older than 10,000 years are controversial. They are under intense scrutiny and may change as new dating technologies are developed and existing ones refined.

Read more about Clovis CultureDescription, Disappearance of Clovis, Discovery, Clovis First, Evidence of Human Habitation Before Clovis, Other Sites

Other articles related to "clovis culture, clovis, culture":

Settlement Of The Americas - Land Bridge Theory - Clovis Culture
... Further information Clovis culture and Clovis point This big game-hunting culture has been labeled the Clovis culture, and is primarily identified by its artifacts of fluted projectile ... The culture received its name from artifacts found near Clovis, New Mexico, the first evidence of this tool complex, excavated in 1932 ... The Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America ...
sites" class="article_title_2">Clovis Culture - Other Sites
... Site with evidence of non-Clovis human remains, a rock painting rupestre art drawings from at least 12,000–6,000 BP ... Minas Gerais, Brazil, is erroneously asserted to be Clovis age or even possibly Pre-Clovis in age ... Clovis sites mostly date between 11,500 and 11,000 radiocarbon years which means 13,000 years before present at a minimum ...
Topper (archaeological Site) - Clovis Culture
... that the first human inhabitants were the Clovis people, who are thought to have appeared approximately 13,500 years ago ... Artifacts of the Clovis people are found throughout most of the United States and as far south as Panama ... theory has been challenged in recent decades with the discovery and dating of pre-Clovis sites such as Monte Verde in Southern Chile, Cactus Hill in Virginia and Buttermilk Creek in Texas ...
Cueva Fell - Site Significance - The Colonization of The New World
... For decades, the Clovis-first model trumped all other theories for the Settlement of the Americas ... This theory basically holds that the Clovis culture constituted the first peoples to inhabit North America ... Asia via the Bering Land Bridge and migrating south through the ice free corridor, the Clovis people populated southern North America ...
Clovis - Archaeology
... Clovis culture, the Paleo Indian culture of North America that appears in the archaeological record of North America approximately 13,500 to 13,000 years ago ...

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