Chemical Potential

In thermodynamics, chemical potential, also known as partial molar free energy, is a form of potential energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction. It may also change during a phase transition. The chemical potential of a species in the mixture can be defined as the slope of the free energy of the system with respect to a change in the number of moles of just that species. Thus, it is the partial derivative of the free energy with respect to the amount of the species, all other species' concentrations in the mixture remaining constant, and at constant temperature. When pressure is constant, chemical potential is the partial molar Gibbs free energy. At chemical equilibrium or in phase equilibrium the total sum of chemical potentials is zero, as the free energy is at a minimum.

In semiconductor physics, the chemical potential of a system of electrons is known as the Fermi level.

Read more about Chemical PotentialOverview, Thermodynamic Definitions, Applications, History, Electrochemical, Internal, External, and Total Chemical Potential, Chemical Potential of Electrons in Solids, In Particle Physics

Other articles related to "chemical potential, potential, chemical, chemical potentials":

Widom Insertion Method - Relation To Other Thermodynamic Quantities - Chemical Potential
... From the above equation and from the definition of activity, the insertion parameter may be related to the chemical potential by. ...
Chemical Potential - In Particle Physics
... In recent years, thermal physics has applied the definition of chemical potential to systems in particle physics and its associated processes ... or other QCD matter, at every point in space there is a chemical potential for photons, a chemical potential for electrons, a chemical potential for baryon number, electric charge, and so forth ... Therefore the chemical potential of photons is always and everywhere zero ...
Spinodal Decomposition - Diffusion Equation
... species ( JA and JB ) to the gradient of the chemical potential difference As pointed out by Cahn, this equation can be considered as a phenomenological definition of the ... It consists of the ratio of the flux to the local gradient in chemical potential ... This leads to a change in its chemical potential, and for fluids Substitution yields By taking the divergence, we obtain the new diffusion equation ...
Gibbs–Duhem Equation
... the Gibbs–Duhem equation describes the relationship between changes in chemical potential for components in a thermodynamical system where is the number of moles of component, the infinitesimal increase ... When pressure and temperature are variable, only of components have independent values for chemical potential and Gibbs' phase rule follows ...
Equilibrium Chemistry - Equilibrium Constant
... Chemical potential is the partial molar free energy ... The potential, μi, of the ith species in a chemical reaction is the partial derivative of the free energy with respect to the number of moles of ... of δGr for these reactions is a function of the chemical potentials of all the species The chemical potential, μi, of the ith species can be calculated in terms of its activity ...

Famous quotes containing the words potential and/or chemical:

    There is a potential 4-6 percentage point net gain for the President [George Bush] by replacing Dan Quayle on the ticket with someone of neutral stature.
    Mary Matalin, U.S. Republican political advisor, author, and James Carville b. 1946, U.S. Democratic political advisor, author. All’s Fair: Love, War, and Running for President, p. 205, Random House (1994)

    If Thought is capable of being classed with Electricity, or Will with chemical affinity, as a mode of motion, it seems necessary to fall at once under the second law of thermodynamics as one of the energies which most easily degrades itself, and, if not carefully guarded, returns bodily to the cheaper form called Heat. Of all possible theories, this is likely to prove the most fatal to Professors of History.
    Henry Brooks Adams (1838–1918)