Chemical Potential

In thermodynamics, chemical potential, also known as partial molar free energy, is a form of potential energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction. It may also change during a phase transition. The chemical potential of a species in the mixture can be defined as the slope of the free energy of the system with respect to a change in the number of moles of just that species. Thus, it is the partial derivative of the free energy with respect to the amount of the species, all other species' concentrations in the mixture remaining constant, and at constant temperature. When pressure is constant, chemical potential is the partial molar Gibbs free energy. At chemical equilibrium or in phase equilibrium the total sum of chemical potentials is zero, as the free energy is at a minimum.

In semiconductor physics, the chemical potential of a system of electrons is known as the Fermi level.

Read more about Chemical PotentialOverview, Thermodynamic Definitions, Applications, History, Electrochemical, Internal, External, and Total Chemical Potential, Chemical Potential of Electrons in Solids, In Particle Physics

Other articles related to "chemical potential, potential, chemical, chemical potentials":

Equilibrium Chemistry - Equilibrium Constant
... Chemical potential is the partial molar free energy ... The potential, μi, of the ith species in a chemical reaction is the partial derivative of the free energy with respect to the number of moles of that species, Ni A general chemical equilibrium can be written as nj ... The value of δGr for these reactions is a function of the chemical potentials of all the species The chemical potential, μi, of the ith species can be ...
Widom Insertion Method - Relation To Other Thermodynamic Quantities - Chemical Potential
... definition of activity, the insertion parameter may be related to the chemical potential by ...
Spinodal Decomposition - Diffusion Equation
... the flux of two species ( JA and JB ) to the gradient of the chemical potential difference As pointed out by Cahn, this equation can be considered as a ... It consists of the ratio of the flux to the local gradient in chemical potential ... This leads to a change in its chemical potential, and for fluids Substitution yields By taking the divergence, we obtain the new diffusion equation Alternatively, since the flux equation can be written as For ...
Chemical Potential - In Particle Physics
... In recent years, thermal physics has applied the definition of chemical potential to systems in particle physics and its associated processes ... plasma or other QCD matter, at every point in space there is a chemical potential for photons, a chemical potential for electrons, a chemical potential for baryon number, electric charge ... Therefore the chemical potential of photons is always and everywhere zero ...
Gibbs–Duhem Equation
... Gibbs–Duhem equation describes the relationship between changes in chemical potential for components in a thermodynamical system where is the number of moles of component ... only of components have independent values for chemical potential and Gibbs' phase rule follows ...

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