Basal Ganglia

The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei of varied origin in the brains of vertebrates that act as a cohesive functional unit. They are situated at the base of the forebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and other brain areas. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, including voluntary motor control, procedural learning relating to routine behaviors or "habits" such as bruxism, eye movements, and cognitive, emotional functions. Currently popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection, that is, the decision of which of several possible behaviors to execute at a given time. Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a number of motor systems, and that a release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active. The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions.

The main components of the basal ganglia are the striatum, the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the subthalamic nucleus. The largest component, the striatum, receives input from many brain areas but sends output only to other components of the basal ganglia. The pallidum receives input from the striatum, and sends inhibitory output to a number of motor-related areas. The substantia nigra is the source of the striatal input of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which plays an important role in basal ganglia function. The subthalamic nucleus receives input mainly from the striatum and cerebral cortex, and projects to the globus pallidus. Each of these areas has a complex internal anatomical and neurochemical organization.

The basal ganglia play a central role in a number of neurological conditions, including several movement disorders. The most notable are Parkinson's disease, which involves degeneration of the dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and Huntington's disease, which primarily involves damage to the striatum. Basal ganglia dysfunction is also implicated in some other disorders of behavior control such as Tourette syndrome, hemiballismus, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and Wilson's disease.

The basal ganglia have a limbic sector whose components are assigned distinct names: the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area. There is considerable evidence that this limbic part plays a central role in reward learning, particularly a pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens that uses the neurotransmitter dopamine. A number of highly addictive drugs, including cocaine, amphetamine, and nicotine, are thought to work by increasing the efficacy of this dopamine signal. There is also evidence implicating overactivity of the VTA dopaminergic projection in schizophrenia.

Read more about Basal GangliaAnatomy, Function, Comparative Anatomy and Naming, Neurotransmitters, Disorders Associated With The Basal Ganglia, History

Other articles related to "basal ganglia":

Neuroanatomy Of Memory - Cortical Structures - Damage To The Cortex - Parkinson's Disease and Memory
... disease involves both damage to the basal ganglia and certain memory dysfunctions, suggesting that the basal ganglia are involved in specific types of memory ... This suggests that the basal ganglia work in both encoding and recalling spatial information ...
Basal Ganglia - History
... The acceptance that the basal ganglia system constitutes one major cerebral system took long to arise ... CĂ©cile and Oskar Vogt (1941) simplified the description of the basal ganglia by proposing the term striatum to describe the group of structures consisting of the caudate nucleus, the putamen ... Together, the two are known as the pallidonigral ensemble, which represents the core of the basal ganglia ...
Lateral Globus Pallidus
... They go also to other elements of the basal ganglia system, the striatum, the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the internal globus pallidus, where they release the ... to the other elements of the set by the fact that it does not work as an output base of the basal ganglia (not sending axons to the thalamus) but as the main ...
Spasmodic Torticollis - Pathophysiology
... Although no lesions are present in the basal ganglia in primary spasmodic torticollis, fMRI and PET studies have shown abnormalities of the basal ganglia and hyper activation of the cortical ... These neurotransmitters are secreted from the basal ganglia and travel to muscle groups in the neck ...
Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 - Expression - Brain - Basal Ganglia
... CB1 receptors are expressed throughout the basal ganglia and have well established effects on movement in rodents ... glutamate and inhibitory GABA interneurons in both the basal ganglia's direct and indirect motor loops, synthetic cannabinoids are known to influence this system in a dose-dependent triphasic pattern ...