Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in journal article, book or thesis form. The part of academic written output that is not formally published but merely printed up or posted on the Internet is often called the "grey literature". Most scientific and scholarly journals, and many academic and scholarly books, though not all, are based on some form of peer review or editorial refereeing to qualify texts for publication. Peer review quality and selectivity standards vary greatly from journal to journal, publisher to publisher, and field to field.
Most established academic disciplines have their own journals and other outlets for publication, although many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. There is also a tendency for existing journals to divide into specialized sections as the field itself becomes more specialized. Along with the variation in review and publication procedures, the kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions to knowledge or research differ greatly among fields and subfields.
Academic publishing is undergoing major changes, as it makes the transition from the print to the electronic format. Business models are different in the electronic environment. Since the early 1990s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common. Currently, an important trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access via the Internet. There are two main forms of open access: open access publishing, in which a whole journal (or book) or individual articles are made available free for all on the web by the publisher at the time of publication (sometimes, but not always, for an extra publication fee paid by the author or the author's institution or funder); and open access self-archiving, in which authors themselves make a copy of their published articles available free for all on the web.
Read more about Academic Publishing: History, Publishers and Business Aspects, Scholarly Paper, Peer Review, Publishing Process, Citations, Categories of Papers, Open Access Journals, Academic Publishing Growth
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... more specifically in the stimulation of Irish learning and the provision of a publishing outlet for the researches of his fellow academics ... CUP would encourage, perhaps even embarrass, UCC academics into preparing good work for publication, work which might not otherwise see the light of day because of its lack of appeal to ... By later standards of academic publishing, O’ Rahilly’s motivations were not of the loftiest perhaps ...
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—Norman Reilly Raine (18951971)
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—Neil Kurshan (20th century)