There are five lattice types, corresponding to the five possible wallpaper groups of the lattice itself. The wallpaper group of a pattern with this lattice of translational symmetry cannot have more, but may have less symmetry than the lattice itself.
- In the 5 cases of rotational symmetry of order 3 or 6, the cell consists of two equilateral triangles (hexagonal lattice, itself p6m).
- In the 3 cases of rotational symmetry of order 4, the cell is a square (square lattice, itself p4m).
- In the 5 cases of reflection or glide reflection, but not both, the cell is a rectangle (rectangular lattice, itself pmm), therefore the diagrams show a rectangle, but a special case is that it actually is a square.
- In the 2 cases of reflection combined with glide reflection, the cell is a rhombus (rhombic lattice, itself cmm); a special case is that it actually is a square.
- In the case of only rotational symmetry of order 2, and the case of no other symmetry than translational, the cell is in general a parallelogram (parallelogrammatic lattice, itself p2), therefore the diagrams show a parallelogram, but special cases are that it actually is a rectangle, rhombus, or square.
Read more about this topic: Wallpaper Group
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