Tecumseh's War - Background

Background

Indian Wars
East of the Mississippi
  • American Revolution (1775–1783)
  • Chickamauga Wars (1776–1794)
  • Northwest Indian War (1785–1795)
  • Nickajack Expedition (1794)
  • Sabine Expedition (1806)
  • War of 1812 (1811–1815)
    • Tecumseh's War (1811–1813)
    • Creek War (1813–1814)
    • Peoria War (1813)
  • First Seminole War (1817–1818)
  • Winnebago War (1827)
  • Black Hawk War (1832)
  • Creek War of 1836 (1836)
  • Florida–Georgia Border War (1836)
  • Second Seminole War (1835–1842)

The two principal adversaries in the conflict, Tecumseh and William Henry Harrison, had both been junior participants in the Battle of Fallen Timbers at the close of the Northwest Indian War in 1794. Tecumseh was not among the signers of the Treaty of Greenville that had ended the war and ceded much of present-day Ohio, long inhabited by the Shawnees and other Native Americans, to the United States. However, many Indian leaders in the region accepted the Greenville terms, and for the next ten years pan-tribal resistance to American hegemony faded.

After the Treaty of Greenville, most of the Ohio Shawnees settled at the Shawnee village of Wapakoneta on the Auglaize River, where they were led by Black Hoof, a senior chief who had signed the treaty. Little Turtle, a war chief of the Miamis, who had also participated in the earlier war and signed the Greenville Treaty, lived in his village on the Eel River. Both Black Hoof and Little Turtle urged cultural adaptation and accommodation with the United States.

The tribes of the region participated in several treaties including the Treaty of Grouseland and the Treaty of Vincennes that gave and recognized American possession of most of southern Indiana. The treaties resulted in an easing of tensions by allowing settlers into Indiana and appeasing the Indians with reimbursement for the lands the settlers were inhabiting via squatting.

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