Under the Act of Settlement 1701, Princess Amelia's grandfather became King of Great Britain on 1 August 1714 following the death of Queen Anne. Amelia's father became Duke of Cornwall, and was created Prince of Wales on 27 September 1714. Amelia became HRH Princess Amelia. She moved to Great Britain with her family and resided at St James's Palace in London.
She was a sickly child, but was comparatively healthy as an adult. In 1722, her mother, who had progressive ideas, had Amelia and her sister Caroline inoculated against smallpox by an early type of immunisation known as variolation, which had been brought to England from Constantinople by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Charles Maitland. On 11 June 1727, George I died and her father succeeded him as George II. Amelia was now styled HRH The Princess Amelia. She lived with her father until his death in 1760.
Her aunt Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia, suggested Amelia as a suitable wife for her son Frederick, Crown Prince of Prussia, but his father Frederick William I of Prussia forced him to marry Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern instead. Amelia may have been the mother of composer Samuel Arnold (1740–1802) through an affair with a commoner of the name Thomas Arnold.
Amelia greatly enjoyed riding and hunting. She was disliked by artistic fops such as John, Lord Hervey, and Lady Pomfret considered her "one of the oddest princesses that ever was known; she has ears shut to flattery and her heart open to honesty."
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