Pomerania During The Early Middle Ages

Pomerania During The Early Middle Ages

The southward movement of Germanic tribes during the migration period had left Pomerania largely depopulated by the 7th century. Between 650 and 850 AD, West Slavic tribes settled in Pomerania. The tribes between the Oder and the Vistula were collectively known as Pomeranians, and those west of the Oder as Veleti and later Lutici. A distinct Slavic tribe, the Rani, was based on the island of Rügen and the adjacted mainland. In the 8th and 9th centuries, Slavic-Scandinavian emporia were set up along the coastline as powerful centers of craft and trade.

In 936, the Holy Roman Empire set up the Billung and Northern marches in Western Pomerania, divided by the Peene river. The Liutician federation regain independence in an uprising of 983 but succumbed to internal conflicts and disintegrated in the course of the 11th century. In late 960s, Polish Piasts acquired parts of eastern Pomerania, where the short-lived Diocese of Kołobrzeg (Kolberg) was installed in 1000 AD. The Pomeranians regained independence during the Pomeranian uprising of 1005.

During the first half of the 11th century, the Liuticians participated in the Holy Roman Empire's wars against Piast Poland. The alliance broke off when Poland was defeated, and the Liutician federation broke apart in 1057 during a civil war. The Liutician capital was destroyed by the Germans in 1068/69, making way for the subsequent eastward expansion of their western neighbor, the Obodrite state. In 1093, the Luticians, Pomeranians and Rani had to pay tribute to Obodrite prince Henry.

Read more about Pomerania During The Early Middle Ages:  Migration Period, Slavic Pomeranians, Scandinavian Settlements and Emporia, Trade, Robbery, and Piracy, Billung and Northern Marches (936-983), Polish Gains and Formation of The Diocese of Kołobrzeg, German-Lutician Alliance, Lutician Decline and Obodrite Expansion

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