Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Disturbances in the normal redox state of cells can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell, including proteins, lipids, and DNA. Further, some reactive oxidative species act as cellular messengers in redox signaling. Thus, oxidative stress can cause disruptions in normal mechanisms of cellular signaling.
In humans, oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the development of many diseases or may exacerbate their symptoms. These include cancer, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, heart failure, myocardial infarction, Schizophrenia Bipolar disorder, fragile X syndrome, Sickle Cell Disease, lichen planus, vitiligo, autism, and chronic fatigue syndrome. However, reactive oxygen species can be beneficial, as they are used by the immune system as a way to attack and kill pathogens. Short-term oxidative stress may also be important in prevention of aging by induction of a process named mitohormesis.
Read more about Oxidative Stress: Chemical and Biological Effects, Production and Consumption of Oxidants, Oxidative Stress and Diseases, Antioxidants As Supplements, Metal Catalysts, Non-metal Redox Catalysts, Immune Defense
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