Muslim Conquest of Persia

Muslim Conquest Of Persia

Muslim conquest
of Persia
  • Chains
  • River
  • Walaja
  • Ullais
  • Hira
  • Ein-ul-Tamr
  • Daumat-ul-Jandal
  • Muzayyah
  • Saniyy
  • Zumail
  • Firaz
  • Bridge
  • al-Qādisiyyah
  • Ctesiphon
  • Jalula
  • Nahāvand
  • Herat
  • Rasil
  • Oxus River
Early Muslim expansion

Byzantine (East Roman) Empire

  • Syria
  • Armenia
  • Egypt
  • North Africa
  • Cyprus
  • Constantinople
  • Georgia
  • Crete
  • Sicily
  • Southern Italy

Sassanid Persian Empire

  • Mesopotamia
  • Persia
  • Afghanistan
  • Indus Valley

Turkic Khazar Khanate

  • Caucasus
  • Volga River
  • South Caucasus

Turkic Turgesh Khanate

  • Jaxartes River
  • Tashtakaracha Pass
  • Oxus

Visigothic Kingdom (Hispania)

Frankish Empire (Gaul)
History of Greater Iran
Pre-modern
Pre-Islamic
BCE
Prehistory
Proto-Elamite civilization 3200–2800
Elamite dynasties 2800–550
Bactria-Margiana Complex 2200–1700
Kingdom of Mannai 10th–7th cent.
Median Empire 728–550
Achaemenid Empire 550–330
Seleucid Empire 330–150
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 250-125
Parthian Empire 248–CE 224
CE
Kushan Empire 30–275
Sassanid Empire 224–651
Hephthalite Empire 425–557
Kabul Shahi kingdom 565–879
Islamic
Patriarchal Caliphate 637–651
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
Tahirid dynasty 821–873
Alavid dynasty 864–928
Saffarid dynasty 861–1003
Samanid dynasty 819–999
Ziyarid dynasty 928–1043
Buyid dynasty 934–1055
Ghaznavid Empire 975–1187
Ghurid dynasty 1149–1212
Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
Khwarazmian dynasty 1077–1231
Ilkhanate 1256–353
Kartids dynasty 1231–389
Muzaffarid dynasty 1314–1393
Chupanid dynasty 1337–1357
Jalayerid dynasty 1339–1432
Timurid Empire 1370–1506
Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans 1407–1468
Aq Qoyunlu Turcomans 1378–1508
Safavid Empire 1501–1722
Mughal Empire 1526–1857
Hotaki dynasty 1722–1729
Afsharid dynasty 1736–1750
Zand Dynasty 1750–1794
Durrani Empire 1794–1826
Qajar Dynasty 1794–1925

The Arab conquest of Persia (Persian: تجاوز اعراب‎ Tajāvoz-e Arāb "the attack of the Arabs" or ظهور اسلام zohur-e eslâm "the dawn of Islam"), led to the end of the Sassanid Empire in 644, the fall of Sassanid dynasty in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. Arabs first entered Sassanid territory in 633, when general Khalid ibn Walid invaded what is now Iraq. Following the transfer of Khalid to the Roman front in the Levant, the Muslims eventually lost their holdings to Iranian counterattacks. The second invasion began in 636 under Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, when a key victory at the Battle of Qadisiyyah led to the permanent end of Sassanid control west of Iran. The Zagros mountains then became a natural barrier and border between the Rashidun Caliphate and the Sassanid Empire. Owing to continuous raids by Persians into the area, Caliph Umar ordered a full invasion of the Sassanid Iranian empire in 642, which was completed with the complete conquest of the Sassanids by mid 644. The quick conquest of Iran in a series of well coordinated multi-pronged attacks, directed by Caliph Umar from Medina several thousand miles from the battlefields in Iran, became his greatest triumph, contributing to his reputation as a great military and political strategist.

Iranian historians have sought to defend their forebears by using Arab sources to illustrate that "contrary to the claims of some historians, Iranians, in fact, fought long and hard against the invading Arabs." By 651, most of the urban centers in Iranian lands, with the notable exception of the Caspian provinces and Transoxiana, had come under the domination of the Arab armies. Many localities in Iran staged a defense against the invaders, but in the end none was able to repulse the invasion. Even after the Arabs had subdued the country, many cities rose in rebellion, killing the Arab governor or attacking their garrisons, but reinforcements from the caliphs succeeded in putting down all these rebellions and imposing the rule of Islam. The violent subjugation of Bukhara (q.v.) after many uprisings is a case in point. Conversion to Islam (q.v.) was, however, only gradual. In the process, many acts of violence took place, Zoroastrian scriptures were burnt and many mobads executed (for examples, see Balāḏori, Fotuḥ, p. 421; Biruni, Āṯār, p. 35).Once conquered politically, the Persians began to reassert themselves by maintaining Persian language and culture. Regardless, Islam was adopted by many, for political, socio-cultural or spiritual reasons, or simply by persuasion, and became the dominant religion.

Read more about Muslim Conquest Of Persia:  Historiography and Recent Scholarship, Sassanid Empire Before The Conquest, Rise of The Caliphate, First Conquest of Mesopotamia (633), Second Invasion of Mesopotamia (636), Conquest of Mesopotamia (636–638), Battle of Nahawand (641), Conquest of Persia (642–644), Persian Rebellion, End of The Sassanid Dynasty, Persia Under Muslim Rule, Language

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