List of Consonants

This is a list of all the consonants which have a dedicated letter in the International Phonetic Alphabet, plus some of the consonants which require diacritics, ordered by place and manner of articulation.

IPA pulmonic consonantschart image • audio
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal
↓ Manner Bila­bial Labio-​dental Den​tal Alve​olar Post­alveolar Retro​flex Alveolo-​palatal Pal​a​tal Ve​lar Uvu​lar Pha​ryn​geal Epi​glot​tal Glot​tal
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̟ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ
Stop p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ɾ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̯
Trill ʙ r ɽ͡r ʀ ᴙ *
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ ɭ˔̊ ʎ̥˔ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ̟ ʎ ʟ
Lateral flap ɺ ɺ̠ ʎ̯ ʟ̆
Non-pulmonic consonants
Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ
ʘ̃ ʘ̃ˀ ʘ͡q ʘ͡qʼ
Implosives ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Ejectives t̪ʼ ʈʼ
θʼ ɬʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ χʼ
tsʼ tɬʼ cʎ̝̥ʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ qχʼ
Affricates
p̪f b̪v ts dz ʈʂ ɖʐ
ɟʝ cʎ̥˔ kx ɡɣ kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝
ɢʁ
Co-articulated consonants
Continuants ʍ w ɥ ɧ
Occlusives k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m
These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers.
Where symbols appear in pairs, left—right represent the voiceless—voiced consonants.
Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible.
* Symbol not defined in IPA.

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