James Buchanan, Jr. (/bjuːˈkænən/; April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th President of the United States (1857–1861). He is the only president from Pennsylvania and the only president who remained a lifelong bachelor.
He represented Pennsylvania in the United States House of Representatives and later the Senate and served as Minister to Russia under President Andrew Jackson. He was also Secretary of State under President James K. Polk. After he turned down an offer for an appointment to the Supreme Court, President Franklin Pierce appointed him minister to the Court of St. James's, in which capacity he helped draft the Ostend Manifesto.
Buchanan was nominated by the Democratic Party in the 1856 Presidential election. Throughout most of Pierce's term, he was stationed in London as a minister to the Court of St. James's and therefore was not caught up in the crossfire of sectional politics that dominated the country. His subsequent election victory took place in a three-man race with John C. Frémont and Millard Fillmore. As President, he was often called a "doughface", a Northerner with Southern sympathies, who battled with Stephen A. Douglas for the control of the Democratic Party. Buchanan's efforts to maintain peace between the North and the South alienated both sides, and the Southern states declared their secession in the prologue to the American Civil War. Buchanan's view of record was that secession was illegal, but that going to war to stop it was also illegal. Buchanan, an attorney, was noted for his mantra, "I acknowledge no master but the law."
By the time he left office, popular opinion was against him, and the Democratic Party had split. Buchanan had once aspired to a presidency that would rank in history with that of George Washington. However, his inability to impose peace on sharply divided partisans on the brink of the Civil War has led to his consistent ranking by historians as one of the worst Presidents in American history. Historians in both 2006 and 2009 voted his failure to deal with secession the worst presidential mistake ever made.
President Buchanan died in 1868, at the age of 77.
Other articles related to "buchanan, james, james buchanan":
... Buchanan is a surname of Scottish origin (see Clan Buchanan) and is the surname of Allen Buchanan, the James B ... Duke Professor of philosophy at Duke University Allen Buchanan (Medal of Honor recipient), American Medal of Honor recipient Archibald C ... Buchanan (1890–1979), American lawyer and judge Barry Buchanan (born 1968), American professional wrestler ("Bull Buchanan") Bay Buchanan, sister to Pat ...
... James Buchanan (United States, b ... Some literature The Calculus of Consent / James Buchanan Gordon Tullock, 1962 The Limits of Liberty, 1975 Democracy in Deficit / James Buchanan Richard E ... Wagner, 1977 The Power to Tax / James Buchanan Geoffrey Brennan, 1980 The Reason of Rules / James Buchanan Geoffrey Brennan, 1985 ...
... Baker Adopted daughter niece (daughter of sister Jane Buchanan and Elliot Tole Lane) Harriet Rebecca Lane 1830 – 1903 Henry Elliott Johnston Adopted daughter niece (daughter ...
... James Buchanan (1791–1868), Pennsylvania State Representative 1814, U.S ... Cousin of James M ... Buchanan ...
... Hampshire Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan Former Secretary of State James Buchanan of Pennsylvania Former Secretary of War William L ... in 1848, who had the backing of northerners in support of the Compromise of 1850 James Buchanan of Pennsylvania, popular in the South as well as in his home state Stephen A ... Cass led on the first 19 ballots, with Buchanan second, and Douglas and Marcy exchanging third and fourth places ...
Famous quotes containing the words buchanan and/or james:
“Hurrah! Hurrah for Sheridan!
Hurrah! Hurrah for horse and man!”
—Thomas Buchanan Read (18221872)
“It is my hope to be able to prove that television is the greatest step forward we have yet made in the preservation of humanity. It will make of this Earth the paradise we have all envisioned, but have never seen.”
—Joseph ODonnell. Clifford Sanforth. Professor James Houghland, Murder by Television, just before he demonstrates his new television device (1935)