Indian Massacre - List of Massacres - 1830–1911


Year Date Name Description Citations
1832 May 20 Indian Creek Massacre A party of Potawatomi, with a few Sauk allies, killed fifteen men, women and children and kidnapped two young women, who were later ransomed.
August 1 Battle of Bad Axe Soldiers under General Henry Atkinson and armed volunteers killed around 150 Indian men, women and children near present-day Victory, Wisconsin.
1833 Cutthroat Gap Massacre Osage tribe attacked a Kiowa camp west of the Wichita Mountains in southwest Oklahoma where one hundred and fifty Kiowa tribal inhabitants were brutally slaughtered in the Osage attack.
1835 December 28 Dade Massacre During the Second Seminole War, Seminole killed almost all of a command of 110 American soldiers in Central Florida. All but two of the soldiers were killed; and one survivor died a few months later from his wounds. Axelrod, Alan, Chronicle of the Indian Wars, p. 146
1836 May 19 Fort Parker Massacre Comanche killed seven European Americans in Limestone County, Texas.
1838 October 5 Killough Massacre Indians massacred eighteen members and relatives of the Killough family in Texas.
1838 or 1839 Exact date unknown Webster Massacre Comanche killed a party of settlers attempting to ford the Bushy Creek near present day Leander, Texas. All of the Anglo men were killed and Mrs. Webster and her two children were captured.
1840 March 19 Council House Massacre
(Council House Fight)
The 12 leaders of a Comanche delegation (65 people including 35 women and children) were shot in San Antonio, Texas, while trying to escape the local jail. 23 others (including 5 women and children) were killed in or around the city.
August 7 Indian Key Massacre During the Seminole Wars, Florida Seminole attacked and destroyed an Indian Key settlement, killing 13 inhabitants, including noted horticulturist Dr. Henry Perrine. Knetsch, Joe. Florida's Seminole Wars 1817–1858, p. 128
October 24 Colorado River Volunteer Rangers under Colonel Moore massacred 140 Comanches (men, women and children) in their village on the Colorado and captured 35 others (mostly small children).
1840 Clear Lake Massacre A posse led by Mexican Salvador Vallejo massacred 150 Pomo and Wappo Indians on Clear Lake, California.
1847 November 29 Whitman massacre Cayuse and Umatilla killed the missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, Mrs. Narcissa Whitman and twelve others at Walla Walla, Washington, triggering the Cayuse War.
1848 April Brazos River A hunting party of 26 friendly Wichita and Caddo Indians was massacred by Texas Rangers under Captain Samuel Highsmithe, in a valley south of Brazos River. 25 men and boys were killed, only one child managed to escape.
1850 May 15 Bloody Island Massacre Nathaniel Lyon and his U. S. Army detachment killed 60–100 Pomo people on Bo-no-po-ti island near Clear Lake, (Lake Co., California); they believed the Pomo had killed two Clear Lake settlers who had been abusing and murdering Pomo people. (The Island Pomo had no connections to the enslaved Pomo). This incident led to a general outbreak of settler attacks against and mass killing of native people all over Northern California. Letter, Brevet Capt. N. Lyon to Major E.R.S. Canby, May 22, 1850.
1851 Old Shasta Town Miners killed 300 Wintu Indians near Old Shasta, California and burned down their tribal council meeting house.
1852 Hynes Bay Massacre Texas militiamen attacked a village of 50 Karankawas, killing 45 of them.
1852 April 23 Bridge Gulch Massacre 70 American men led by Trinity County sheriff William H. Dixon killed more than 150 Wintu people in the Hayfork Valley of California, in retaliation for the killing of Col. John Anderson. Norton, Jack. Genocide in Northern California
1853 Yontoket Massacre A posse of settlers attacked and burnt a Tolowa rancheria at Yontocket, California. Several hundred Indians were massacred.
1853 Achulet Massacre White settlers launched an attack on a Tolowa village near Lake Earl in California, killing between 65 and 150 Indians.
1853 Before December 31 "Ox" incident US forces attacked and killed an unreported number of Indians in the Four Creeks area (Tulare Co., California) in what was referred to by officers as "our little difficulty" and "the chastisement they have received". Letter, Bvt. 2nd Lieut. John Nugens to Lieut T. Wright, December 31, 1853.
August 19 Grattan Massacre After a detachment of 30 U.S. soldiers in the Nebraska Territory opened fire on an encampment of 4,000 Brulé Sioux, killing Chief Conquering Bear, warriors attacked and killed all the soldiers and their civilian interpreter.
August 20 Ward Massacre Shoshone killed 18 of the 20 members of the Alexander Ward party, attacking them on the Oregon Trail in western Idaho. This event led the US eventually to abandon Fort Boise and Fort Hall, in favor of the use of military escorts for emigrant wagon trains.
1855 January 22 Klamath River massacres In retaliation for the murder of six settlers and the theft of some cattle, whites commenced a "war of extermination against the Indians" in Humboldt Co., California. Crescent City Herald, quoted in Sacramento newspaper.
1855 October 8 Lupton Massacre A group of settlers and miners launched a night attack on an Indian village near Upper Table Rock, Oregon, killing 23 Indians (mostly elderly men, women and children).
1859 September Pit River White settlers massacred 70 Achomawi Indians (10 men and 60 women and children) in their village on Pit River in California.
1859 Chico Creek White settlers attacked a Maidu camp near Chico Creek in California, killing indiscriminately 40 Indians.
1860 February 26 1860 Wiyot Massacre
(Indian Island Massacre)
During one of three simultaneous assaults on the Wiyot, white settlers killed about 188 Wiyot, mostly women and children, in Humboldt County, California.
December 18 Pease River Massacre Texas Rangers under Captain Sul Ross attacked a Comanche village in Foard County, Texas, killing indiscriminately a considerable number of Indians.
1861 Horse Canyon Massacre White settlers and Indian allies attacked a Wailaki village in Horse Canyon (Round Valley, California), killing up to 240 Wailakis.
1861 Cookes Canyon Massacres Apaches massacred hundreds of Americans and Mexicans in and around Cookes Canyon, New Mexico over the course of several months.
1862 Upper Station Massacre Californian settlers killed at least 20 Wailakis in Round Valley, California.
1862 August–September Dakota War of 1862 As part of the U.S.-Dakota War, the Dakota killed as many as 800 white settlers and soldiers throughout Minnesota. Some 40,000 white settlers fled their homes on the frontier.
October 24 Tonkawa Massacre During the American Civil War, a detachment of irregular Union Indians, mainly Kickapoo, Delaware and Shawnee, accompanied by Caddo allies, attempted to destroy the Tonkawa tribe in Indian Territory. They killed 240 of 390 Tonkawa, leaving only 150 survivors.
1863 January 29 Bear River Massacre Col. Patrick Connor led a regiment killing 280 Indian men, women and children near Preston, Idaho.
April 19 Keyesville Massacre American militia and members of the California cavalry killed 35 Tehachapi men in Kern County, California.
1864 Massacre at Bloody Tanks A group of white settlers led by King S. Woolsey killed 19 Apaches at a "peace parley".
1864 Skull Valley Massacre A group of Yavapai families was lured into a trap and massacred by soldiers under Lt. Monteith in a valley west of Prescott, Arizona (Arizona). The place was named Skull Valley after the heads of the dead Indians left unburied.
1864 November 29 Sand Creek Massacre Members of the Colorado Militia attacked a peaceful village of Cheyenne, killing at least 160 men, women and children at Sand Creek, Colorado.
1865 March 14 Mud Lake Massacre US troops under Captain Wells attacked a Paiute camp near Winnemucca Lake, killing 32 Indians. One soldier was slightly wounded during the attack.
1865 Owens Lake Massacre A posse of viligante attacked a Paiute camp on Owens Lake in California, killing about 40 men, women and children.
1866 Three Knolls Massacre White settlers massacrred a Yana community at Three Knolls on the Mill Creek, California.
1866 April 21 Circleville Massacre Mormon militiamen killed 16 Paiute men and women at Circleville, Utah. 6 men were shot, allegedly while trying to escape. The others (3 men and 7 women) had their throats cut. 4 small children were spared.
1867 Aquarius Mountains Yavapai County Rangers killed 23 Indians (men, women and children) in the southern Aquarius Mountains, Arizona.
1867 July 2 Kidder Massacre Cheyenne and Sioux ambushed and killed a 2nd US Cavalry detachment of eleven men and their Indian guide near Beaver Creek in Sherman County, Kansas .
1868 Campo Seco A posse of white settlers massacred 33 Yahis in a cave north of Mill Creek, California.
1868 November 27 Washita Massacre
(Battle of Washita River)
During the American Indian Wars, Lt. Col. G.A.Custer's 7th cavalry attacked a village of sleeping Cheyenne led by Black Kettle. Custer reported 103 – later revised to 140 – warriors, "some" women and "few" children killed, and 53 women and children taken hostage. Other casualty estimates by cavalry members, scouts and Indians vary widely, with the number of men killed ranging as low as 11 and the numbers of women and children ranging as high as 75. Before returning to their base, the cavalry killed several hundred Indian ponies and burned the village.
1870 January 23 Marias Massacre White Americans killed 173 Piegan, mainly women, children and the elderly.
1871 Kingsley Cave Massacre 4 settlers killed 30 Yahi Indians in Tehama Co., California.
1871 April 30 Camp Grant Massacre Led by the ex-Mayor of Tucson, William Oury, eight Americans, 48 Mexicans and more than 100 allied Pima attacked Apache men, women and children at Camp Grant, killing more than 100. Terrell, J., Land Grab, pp. 4–10.
1871 November 5 Wickenburg massacre Indians attacked an Arizona stagecoach, killing the driver and his five passengers.
1872 Between August and October Jordan Massacre 3 settlers killed, 1 woman abducted, apparently by Indians at Middle Fork of Walnut Creek, Kansas
1872 December 28 Skeleton Cave Massacre US troops and Indian scouts killed 76 Yavapai Indians men, women and children in a remote cave in Arizona's Salt River Canyon.
1873 June 1 Cypress Hills Massacre Following a dispute over stolen horses, American wolfers killed approximately 20 Nakoda in Saskatchewan.
1879 January 9–21 Fort Robinson Massacre Northern Cheyenne under Dull Knife attempted to escape from confinement in Fort Robinson, Nebraska; the US Army forces hunted them down, killing 77 of them. The remains of those killed were repatriated in 1994.
1879 September 30 Meeker Massacre In the beginning of the Ute War, the Ute killed the US Indian Agent Nathan Meeker and 10 others. They also attacked a military unit, killing 13 and wounding 43.
1880 April 28 Alma Massacre The Apache chief Victorio led warriors in an attack on settlers at Alma, New Mexico. On December 19, 1885, the Apache killed an officer and four enlisted men of the 8th Cavalry Regiment near Alma.
1889 November 2 Kelvin Grade Massacre The Apache Kid (Haskay-bay-nay-ntayl) and his gang escaped police custody, killing two sheriffs and wounding one settler near present-day Globe, Arizona.
1890 December 29 Wounded Knee Massacre Members of the U.S. 7th Cavalry attacked and killed between 130 and 250 Sioux men, women and children at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
1911 January 19 Last Massacre A group of Shoshone killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada. On February 26, 1911, an American posse killed eight of the Shoshone suspects and captured four children from the band.

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