Geology of The Moon

The geology of the Moon (sometimes called selenology, although the latter term can refer more generally to "lunar science") is quite different from that of the Earth. The Moon lacks a significant atmosphere, which eliminates erosion due to weather; it does not possess any form of plate tectonics, it has a lower gravity, and because of its small size, it cools more rapidly. The complex geomorphology of the lunar surface has been formed by a combination of processes, chief among which are impact cratering and volcanism. Recent analyses show that the Moon not only has surface water but also enough water in the interior to cover the surface to a depth of one meter. The Moon is a differentiated body, possessing a crust, mantle and core.

Geological studies of the Moon are based on a combination of Earth-based telescope observations, measurements from orbiting spacecraft, lunar samples, and geophysical data. A few locations were sampled directly during the Apollo missions in the late 1960s and early 1970s, which returned approximately 385 kilograms of lunar rock and soil to Earth, as well as several missions of the Soviet Luna programme. The Moon is the only extraterrestrial body for which we possess samples with a known geologic context. A handful of lunar meteorites have been recognized on Earth, though their source craters on the Moon are unknown. A substantial portion of the lunar surface has not been explored, and a number of geological questions remain unanswered.

Read more about Geology Of The Moon:  Elemental Composition, Formation, Geologic History, Lunar Landscape, The Lunar Magma Ocean, Internal Structure of The Moon

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