Classical Anatolia

Classical Anatolia

History of Anatolia
Paleolithic c. 500,000 – 10,000 BC
Mesolithic c. 11,000 – 9,000 BC
Neolithic c. 8,000 – 5,500 BC
Hattians c. 2500 BC – c. 2000 BC
Akkadian Empire c. 2400 BC – c. 2150 BC
Assyrian trading colonies c. 1950 BC – 1750 BC
Kingdom of Kizzuwatna c. 1650 BC – 1450 BC
Hittites c. 1680 BC – 1220 BC
Old Kingdom c. 1600-1460 BC
Middle Kingdom c. 1460-1400 BC
New Kingdom c. 1400-1178 BC
Neo-Hittite Kingdoms c. 1200 – 800 BC
Ionian League c. 1300 BC – 700 BC
Phrygian Kingdom c. 1200 BC – 700 BC
Troy I-VIII c. 3000 BC – 700 BC
Lydian Kingdom c. 685 BC – 547 BC
Median Empire c. 625 BC – 549 BC
Achaemenid Empire of Persia c. 559 BC – 331 BC
Kingdom of Alexander the Great 334 BC – c. 323 BC
Diadochi 334 BC – c. 301 BC
Lysimachian Empire 301 - 281 BC
Ptolomeic Empire 301 - 30 BC
Seleucid Empire c. 301 BC – 64 BC
Kingdom of Pontus c. 302 BC – 64 BC
Attalids of Pergamon 282 BC – 129 BC
Kingdom of Armenia 190 BC – 428 AD
The Roman Republic 509 BC –27 BC
The Roman Empire 27 BC – 330 AD
The Byzantine Empire 330–1453
Byzantium under the Heraclians 610–711
Isaurian dynasty and Iconoclasm 730–787 / 814–842
Byzantium under the Macedonians 867–1056
Byzantium under the Komnenoi 1081–1185
Byzantium under the Angeloi 1185–1204
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia 1078–1375
The Empire of Trebizond 1204–1461
The Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261
Byzantium under the Palaiologoi 1260–1453
Danishmends 1071–1178
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm 1077–1307
Artuqids 1101–1409
Beylik of Karaman 1270–1487
The Ilkhanid Dynasty ca. 1256–1355
The Rise of the Ottoman Empire 1299–1453
The Growth of the Ottoman Empire 1453–1606
The Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire 1606–1699
The Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1699–1839
The Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire 1792–1922
The Republic of Turkey 1923–present

The history of Anatolia encompasses the region known as Anatolia (Turkish: Anadolu), known by the Latin name of Asia Minor, considered to be the westernmost extent of Asia. Geographically it encompasses the central uplands of modern Turkey, from the coastal plain of the Aegean Sea east to the mountains on the Armenian border and from the narrow coast of the Black Sea south to the Taurus mountains and Mediterranean coast.

The earliest representations of culture in Anatolia were Stone Age artifacts. The remnants of Bronze Age civilizations such as the Hattian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Hittite peoples provide us with many examples of the daily lives of its citizens and their trade. After the fall of the Hittites, the new states of Phrygia and Lydia stood strong on the western coast as Greek civilization began to flourish. Only the threat from a distant Persian kingdom prevented them from advancing past their peak of success.

As Persia grew in strength, their system of local government in Anatolia allowed many port cities to grow and to become wealthy. Their governors revolted periodically but did not pose a serious threat. The Greek Alexander the Great finally wrested control of the whole region from Persia in successive battles, proving victorious over the Persian Darius III. After Alexander's death, his conquests were split amongst several of his trusted generals, but were under constant threat of invasion from both the Gauls and other powerful rulers in Pergamon, Pontus, and Egypt. The Seleucid Empire, the largest of Alexander's territories, and which included Anatolia, became involved in a disastrous war with Rome culminating in the battles of Thermopylae and Magnesia. The resulting Treaty of Apamea in (188 BC) saw the Seleucids retreat from Anatolia. The Kingdom of Pergamum and the Republic of Rhodes, Rome's allies in the war, were granted the former Seleucid lands in Anatolia.

Roman control of Anatolia was strengthened by a 'hands off' approach by Rome, allowing local control to govern effectively and providing military protection. In the early 4th century, Constantine the Great established a new administrative centre at Constantinople, and by the end of the 4th century a new eastern empire was established with Constantinople as its capital, referred to by historians as the Byzantine Empire from the original name, Byzantium.

Read more about Classical Anatolia:  Recorded History, Classical Antiquity, Medean and Achaemenid (Persian) Empires

Famous quotes containing the word classical:

    Several classical sayings that one likes to repeat had quite a different meaning from the ones later times attributed to them.
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe (1749–1832)