Bulgarian conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a Bulgarian verb from its principal parts by inflection. It is affected by person, number, gender, tense, mood and voice. Bulgarian verbs are conventionally divided into three conjugations according to the thematic vowel they use in the present tense:
- 1st conjugation: verbs using the vowel е (/ɛ/).
- 2nd conjugation: verbs using the vowel и (/i/).
- 3rd conjugation: athematic verbs, stems end in а or я.
In a dictionary, Bulgarian verbs are listed with their first-person-singular-present-tense form, due to the lack of an infinitive. This form is called the citation form.
Bulgarian verbs are conjugated using the formula:
where thematic vowel and inflection suffix are only optional. The stem of the verb is what is left of the citation form after removing its final letter. Sometimes in the course of conjugation, the stem may undergo some alterations. In this article, any alteration of the stem is coloured in blue, the thematic vowels are coloured in red, and the inflectional endings in green.
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