# What are christoffel symbols?

## Christoffel Symbols

In mathematics and physics, the Christoffel symbols, named for Elwin Bruno Christoffel (1829–1900), are numerical arrays of real numbers that describe, in coordinates, the effects of parallel transport in curved surfaces and, more generally, manifolds. As such, they are coordinate-space expressions for the Levi-Civita connection derived from the metric tensor. In a broader sense, the connection coefficients of an arbitrary (not necessarily metric) affine connection in a coordinate basis are also called Christoffel symbols. The Christoffel symbols may be used for performing practical calculations in differential geometry. For example, the Riemann curvature tensor can be expressed entirely in terms of the Christoffel symbols and their first partial derivatives.

### Some articles on christoffel symbols:

List Of Formulas In Riemannian Geometry - Christoffel Symbols, Covariant Derivative
... In a smooth coordinate chart, the Christoffel symbols of the first kind are given by and the Christoffel symbols of the second kind by Here is the inverse matrix to the metric tensor ... Christoffel symbols satisfy the symmetry relation which is equivalent to the torsion-freeness of the Levi-Civita connection ... The contracting relations on the Christoffel symbols are given by and where
Mechanics Of Planar Particle Motion - Fictitious Forces in Curvilinear Coordinates
... when equations of motion are expressed in a curvilinear coordinate system, Christoffel symbols appear in the acceleration of a particle expressed in this coordinate system, as described below in ...   in which the coefficients of the unit vectors are the Christoffel symbols for the coordinate system ... The general notation and formulas for the Christoffel symbols are    and the symbol is zero when all the indices are different ...
Christoffel Symbols - Applications To General Relativity
... The Christoffel symbols find frequent use in Einstein's theory of general relativity, where spacetime is represented by a curved 4-dimensional Lorentz manifold with a Levi-Civita connection ... spacetime in the presence of matter—contain the Ricci tensor, and so calculating the Christoffel symbols is essential ... are calculated by solving the geodesic equations in which the Christoffel symbols explicitly appear ...

### Famous quotes containing the word symbols:

As usual I finish the day before the sea, sumptuous this evening beneath the moon, which writes Arab symbols with phosphorescent streaks on the slow swells. There is no end to the sky and the waters. How well they accompany sadness!
Albert Camus (1913–1960)