Turkish Phonology - Vowels

Vowels

The vowels of the Turkish language are, in their alphabetical order, ⟨a⟩, ⟨e⟩, ⟨ı⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨ö⟩, ⟨u⟩, ⟨ü⟩. There are no diphthongs in Turkish and when two vowels come together, which occurs in some Arabic loanwords, each vowel retains its individual sound.

Turkish vowels with example words
Vowel sound Example
IPA Description IPA Orthography English translation
/i/ , close front unrounded /dil/ dil 'tongue'
/y/ , close front rounded /ɟyˈneʃ/ güneş 'sun'
/ɯ/ , close back unrounded /ɯˈɫɯk/ ılık 'lukewarm'
/e/ , mid front unrounded /ses/ ses 'sound'
/ø/ , mid front rounded /ɟøɾ/ gör- 'to see'
/a/ , open central unrounded /daɫ/ dal 'branch'
/o/ mid back rounded /joɫ/ yol 'way'
/u/ , close back rounded /uˈtʃak/ uçak 'aeroplane'

(/ø/ may also be transcribed as ⟨œ⟩ (as in the vowel chart at right), but has the same mid height as /e/ and /o/.)

Although a central vowel phonetically, /a/ is phonologically a "back" vowel based on its patterning with other back vowels in harmonic processess and the alternation of adjacent consonants (see above). The vowel /e/ plays the role as the "front" analog of /a/.

All vowels but /o a/ have lowered allophones word-finally: . In addition, for most people /e/ has an allophone before a syllable-coda /m n l r/, so that perende 'somersault' is pronounced . There are a limited number of words, such as kendi 'self' and hem 'both', which are pronounced with by some people and with by some others.

In the sequence , the /a/ is significantly raised.

Read more about this topic:  Turkish Phonology

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Romanian Phonology - Vowels - Vowel Alternations
... Romanian has a broad process of alternating between a mid vowel and a "low" vowel /e̯a/ alternates with /e/, /o̯a/ with /o/, and /a/ with /ə/ ... Originally, this was the result of a phonological process wherein mid vowels (Balkan Latin, by this time, had merged the long and short mid vowels ... as shown in the examples below, where stressed vowels and diphthongs are highlighted in bold Stressed Unstressed a - ə carte 'book' cărticică 'book ...

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