Tunnels are dug in types of materials varying from soft clay to hard rock. The method of tunnel construction depends on such factors as the ground conditions, the ground water conditions, the length and diameter of the tunnel drive, the depth of the tunnel, the logistics of supporting the tunnel excavation, the final use and shape of the tunnel and appropriate risk management.
There are three basic types of tunnel construction in common use:
- Cut and cover tunnels, constructed in a shallow trench and then covered over.
- Bored tunnels, constructed in situ, without removing the ground above. They are usually of circular or horseshoe cross-section.
- Immersed tube tunnels, sunk into a body of water and sit on, or are buried just under, its bed.
Read more about this topic: Tunnel
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“The construction of life is at present in the power of facts far more than convictions.”
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—Mason Cooley (b. 1927)
“No real vital character in fiction is altogether a conscious construction of the author. On the contrary, it may be a sort of parasitic growth upon the authors personality, developing by internal necessity as much as by external addition.”
—T.S. (Thomas Stearns)