Telomere

A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. Its name is derived from the Greek nouns telos (τέλος) 'end' and merοs (μέρος, root: μερ-) 'part.' Telomere regions deter the degradation of genes near the ends of chromosomes by allowing chromosome ends to shorten, which necessarily occurs during chromosome replication. Over time, due to each cell division, the telomere ends become shorter.

During cell division, enzymes that duplicate DNA cannot continue their duplication all the way to the end of chromosomes. If cells divided without telomeres, they would lose the ends of their chromosomes, and the necessary information they contain. The telomeres are disposable buffers blocking the ends of the chromosomes, are consumed during cell division, and are replenished by an enzyme, telomerase reverse transcriptase.

Read more about TelomereDiscovery, Telomere Shortening, Lengthening Telomeres, Telomere Sequences, Telomeres and Cancer, Measurement of Telomere Length in The Laboratory

Other articles related to "telomere, telomeres":

ACD (gene)
... DNA polymerase binding Cellular component • chromosome, telomeric region • nuclear telomere cap complex • nucleoplasm Biological process • telomere maintenance ... This gene encodes a protein that is involved in telomere function ... telomeric complex, which functions to maintain telomere length and to protect telomere ends ...
TINF2
... component • chromosome, telomeric region • nuclear telomere cap complex • nucleoplasm • perinucleolar chromocenter • nuclear matrix Biological process • telomere maintenance ...
Measurement of Telomere Length in The Laboratory
... Several techniques are currently employed to assess average telomere length in eukaryotic cells ... have been overcome with a Real-Time PCR assay for telomere length and Flow-FISH ... Real-time PCR assay involves determining the Telomere-to-Single Copy Gene (T/S)ratio, which is demonstrated to be proportional to the average telomere length in a cell ...
TERF2
... activity Cellular component • chromosome, telomeric region • nuclear telomere cap complex • male germ cell nucleus • nucleus • nucleoplasm • nucleolus • cytoplasm • Golgi apparatus • Mre11 ... This gene encodes a telomere specific protein, TERF2, which is a component of the telomere nucleoprotein complex ... This protein is present at telomeres in metaphase of the cell cycle, is a second negative regulator of telomere length and plays a key role in the protective activity of telomeres ...
Chromosome 2 (human) - Evolution
... The presence of vestigial telomeres ... chromosome, but in chromosome 2 there are additional telomere sequences in the middle ... conclude that the locus cloned in cosmids c8.1 and c29B is the relic of an ancient telomere-telomere fusion and marks the point at which two ancestral ape chromosomes fused to give rise to human chromosome 2." ...