Samkhya, also Sankhya, Sāṃkhya, or Sāṅkhya (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: sāṃkhya) is one of the six orthodox (astika) schools of Hindu philosophy and classical Indian philosophy. Sage Kapila is traditionally credited as a founder of the Samkhya school. It is regarded as one of the oldest philosophical systems in India.

The major text of this Vedic school is the extant Samkhya Karika circa 200 CE. This text (in karika 70) identifies Sāmkhya as a Tantra and its philosophy was one of the main influences both on the rise of the Tantras as a body of literature, as well as Tantra sadhana. The Samkhya school is dualistic and atheistic.

Sāmkhya is an enumerationist philosophy that is strongly dualist. Sāṃkhya denies the final cause of Ishvara (God). Sāmkhya philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two realities; Puruṣa (consciousness) and prakriti (phenomenal realm of matter). Jiva is that state in which puruṣa is bonded to prakriti through the glue of desire, and the end of this bondage is moksha. Samkhya does not describe what happens after moksha and does not mention anything about Ishwara or God, because after liberation there is no essential distinction of individual and universal puruṣa.

There are differences between Samkhya and Western forms of dualism. In the West, the fundamental distinction is between mind and body which are both inanimate or jaDa in Sāmkhya. In Samkhya, however, the dualism is between the real self (as puruṣa) and matter (prakriti). There are three possible states of existence of puruṣa: the liberated state when puruṣa has no connection with prakriti, the bonded state without life when puruṣa is bonded to 13 karanas but does not have a body, and the physical state as a living being or jiva when this jiva gets attached to a body. Therefore, the theory of rebirth or transmigration of the soul is inherent in Samkhya.

Read more about Samkhya:  Historical Development, Fundamentals, Influence On Other Schools

Other articles related to "samkhya":

Samkhya - Influence On Other Schools
... The Yoga school derives its ontology and epistemology from Samkhya and adds to it the concept of Isvara ... on the actual relationship between Yoga and Samkhya is divided ... many Indian schools and its association with Samkhya was artificially foisted upon by commentators such as Vyasa ...
History Of Shaktism - Philosophical Development - Samkhya and Vedanta
... of Tantric traditions indicates the influence of Samkhya on Tantra ... Shakta philosophy also elaborated Samkhya theory on the phases of cosmic evolution (tattvas) by expanding the number of phases from 25 to 36 tattvas ...
Shvetashvatara Upanishad - Special Features
4] A fourth specialty is the use of words such as Samkhya, Kapila, yoga and Prakriti ... The definitive words like Samkhya, prakriti, etc ... The philosophical jargon of Samkhya school of thought originated in the vedas well before the birth of Samkhya ...
Tattvas in Samkhya
... The Samkhya philosophy regards the Universe as consisting of two eternal realities Purusha and Prakrti ... The twenty-five tattva system of Samkhya concerns itself only with the tangible aspect of creation, theorizing that Prakriti is the source of the world ...
Atheism In Hinduism - Arguments Against God
... Samkhya gave the following arguments against the idea of an eternal, self-caused, creator God If the existence of karma is assumed, the proposition ... Moreover, desire, according to Samkhya, is an attribute of prakriti and cannot be thought to grow in God ... The testimony of the Vedas, according to Samkhya, also confirms this notion ...