There are about 3,000 runestones among the c. 6,000 runic inscriptions in Scandinavia. There are also runestones in other parts of the world as the tradition of raising runestones followed the Norsemen wherever they went, from the Isle of Man (Manx Runestones) in the west to the Black Sea in the east (Berezan' Runestone), and from Jämtland in the north to Schleswig in the south.
The runestones are unevenly distributed in Scandinavia: Denmark has 250 runestones, Norway has 50 while Iceland has none. Sweden has as many as between 1,700 and 2,500 depending on definition. The Swedish district of Uppland has the highest concentration with as many as 1,196 inscriptions in stone, whereas Södermanland is second with 391.
Outside of Scandinavia, the Isle of Man stands out with its 30 runestones from the 9th century and early 11th century. Scattered runestones have also been found in England, Ireland, Scotland and the Faroe Islands. With the exception of the runestone on Berezan', there are no runestones in Eastern Europe, which probably is due to a lack of available stones and the fact that the local population probably did not treat the foreigners' stones with much respect.
Runestones were placed on selected spots in the landscape, such as assembly locations, roads, bridge constructions, and fords. In medieval churches, there are often runestones that have been inserted as construction material, and it is debated whether they were originally part of the church location or had been moved there. In southern Scania, runestones can be tied to large estates that also had churches constructed on their land. In the Mälaren Valley, the runestones appear to be placed so that they mark essential parts of the domains of an estate, such as courtyard, grave field, and borders to neighbouring estates. Runestones usually appear as single monuments and more rarely as pairs. In some cases, they are part of larger monuments together with other raised stones.
However, although scholars know where 95% of all runestones were discovered, only c. 40% were discovered in their original location. The remainder have been found in churches, roads, bridges, graves, farms, and water routes. On the other hand scholars agree that the stones were not moved very far from their original sites.
Read more about this topic: Runestone
Other articles related to "distribution":
... chain need not necessarily be time-homogeneous to have an equilibrium distribution ... If there is a probability distribution over states such that for every state j and every time n then is an equilibrium distribution of the Markov chain ... for a particular kind of mixing, but each matrix respects a shared equilibrium distribution ...
... later editions of his book, de Moivre gives the first statement of the formula for the normal distribution curve, the first method of finding the probability of the occurrence of an error of a ... upon Lives, in which he revealed the normal distribution of the mortality rate over a person’s age ...
... Since F(a) = Pr(X ≤ a), the convergence in distribution means that the probability for Xn to be in a given range is approximately equal to the probability that the value of X is in that ... In general, convergence in distribution does not imply that the sequence of corresponding probability density functions will also converge ... These random variables converge in distribution to a uniform U(0, 1), whereas their densities do not converge at all ...
... complex Markov processes where the states emit the observations according to some probability distribution ... One such example of distribution is Gaussian distribution, in such a Hidden Markov Model the states output is represented by a Gaussian distribution ...
... aerosol, we describe the size of the aerosol by use of the particle-size distribution ... One approach to defining the particle size distribution is to use a list of the size of all particles in a sample ... be useful to approximate the particle size distribution using a mathematical function ...
Famous quotes containing the word distribution:
“The man who pretends that the distribution of income in this country reflects the distribution of ability or character is an ignoramus. The man who says that it could by any possible political device be made to do so is an unpractical visionary. But the man who says that it ought to do so is something worse than an ignoramous and more disastrous than a visionary: he is, in the profoundest Scriptural sense of the word, a fool.”
—George Bernard Shaw (18561950)
“My topic for Army reunions ... this summer: How to prepare for war in time of peace. Not by fortifications, by navies, or by standing armies. But by policies which will add to the happiness and the comfort of all our people and which will tend to the distribution of intelligence [and] wealth equally among all. Our strength is a contented and intelligent community.”
—Rutherford Birchard Hayes (18221893)
“The question for the country now is how to secure a more equal distribution of property among the people. There can be no republican institutions with vast masses of property permanently in a few hands, and large masses of voters without property.... Let no man get by inheritance, or by will, more than will produce at four per cent interest an income ... of fifteen thousand dollars] per year, or an estate of five hundred thousand dollars.”
—Rutherford Birchard Hayes (18221893)