Research Institute - Scientific Research in Twentieth Century America

Scientific Research in Twentieth Century America

Research institutes came to emerge at the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1900, at least in Europe and the United States, the scientific profession had only evolved so far as to include the theoretical implications of science and not its application. Research scientists had yet to establish a leadership in expertise. Outside of scientific circles it was generally assumed that a person in an occupation related to the sciences carried out work which was necessarily "scientific" and that the skill of the scientist did not hold any more merit than the skill of a labourer. A philosophical position on science was not thought by all researchers to be intellectually superior to applied methods. However any research on scientific application was limited by comparison. A loose definition attributed all naturally occurring phenomena to "science". The growth of scientific study stimulated a desire to reinvigorate the scientific discipline by robust research; in order to extract "pure" science from such broad categorisation.

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Research Institute - Scientific Research in Twentieth Century America - 1940 Onwards
... The expansion of universities into the faculty of research fed into these developments as mass education produced mass scientific communities ... A growing public consciousness of scientific research brought public perception to the fore in driving specific research developments ... After the Second World War and the Atom Bomb specific research threads were followed environmental pollution and national defense ...

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