Pollination

Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred in the reproduction of plants, thereby enabling fertilization and sexual reproduction.

In spite of a common perception that pollen grains are gametes, like the sperm cells of animals, this is incorrect; pollination is a phase in the alternation of generations: each pollen grain is a male haploid plant, a gametophyte, adapted to being transported to the female gametophyte, where it can achieve fertilization by producing the male gamete (or gametes, in the process of double fertilization).

As such the Angiosperm successful pollen grain (gametophyte) containing the male gametes (sperm) gets transported to the stigma, where it germinates and its pollen tube grows down the style to the ovary. Its two gametes travel down the tube to where the gametophyte(s) containing the female gametes are held within the carpel. One nucleus fuses with the polar bodies to produce the endosperm tissues, and the other with the ovum to produce the embryo Hence the term: "double fertilization".

In gymnosperms the ovule is not contained in a carpel, but exposed on the surface of a dedicated support organ such as the scale of a cone, so that the penetration of carpel tissue is unnecessary. Details of the process vary according to the division of Gymnosperms in question.

The receptive part of the carpel is called a stigma in the flowers of angiosperms. The receptive part of the gymnosperm ovule is called the micropyle. Pollination is a necessary step in the reproduction of flowering plants, resulting in the production of offspring that are genetically diverse.

The study of pollination brings together many disciplines, such as botany, horticulture, entomology, and ecology. The pollination process as an interaction between flower and vector was first addressed in the 18th century by Christian Konrad Sprengel. It is important in horticulture and agriculture, because fruiting is dependent on fertilisation, which is the result of pollination.

Read more about Pollination:  Mechanics, Evolution of Plant/pollinator Interactions, In Agriculture, Environmental Impacts

Other articles related to "pollination":

Biotic Pollination Syndromes - Bee Pollination (melittophily)
... by bees because their anthers release pollen internally, and it must be shaken out by buzz pollination (also known as "sonication") ... Bee pollination from mobile beehives is of great economic value for orchards such as apple or almond ...
Carissa Macrocarpa - Horticultural Aspects - Pollination
... unfruitfulness has been attributed to inadequate pollination ... However, hand pollination is possible and in future poor pollination could be avoided by cultivation of floral structures that are highly favourable for self-fertilization ...
Beekeeping In The United States - Bee Rentals and Migratory Beekeeping
... Beekeepers earn much more from renting their bees out for pollination than they do from honey production ... moving his hives from Idaho to California in January to prepare for almond pollination in February, then to apple orchards in Washington in March ... to almond farmers in the Central Valley for pollination ...
Bifrenaria - Description
... Little is known about pollination in Bifrenaria ... Although there are no reports of flower pollination being directly observed, a paper published in 2006 studied the micromorphology of the labellum in ... surface of most Bifrenaria labelli seems to indicate possible pollination by large bees as the major mean ...
Shade-grown Coffee - Ecological Impacts - Biotic Processes - Pollination
... This increase in bee abundance results in a direct increase in the pollination of shade trees as well the coffee plants themselves ...