Peninsula Campaign

The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement against the Confederate States Army in Northern Virginia, intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond. McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of the aggressive General Robert E. Lee turned the subsequent Seven Days Battles into a humiliating Union defeat.

McClellan landed his army at Fort Monroe and moved northwest, up the Virginia Peninsula. Confederate Brig. Gen. John B. Magruder's defensive position on the Warwick Line caught McClellan by surprise. His hopes for a quick advance foiled, McClellan ordered his army to prepare for a siege of Yorktown. Just before the siege preparations were completed, the Confederates, now under the direct command of Johnston, began a withdrawal toward Richmond. The first heavy fighting of the campaign occurred in the Battle of Williamsburg, in which the Union troops managed some tactical victories, but the Confederates continued their withdrawal. An amphibious flanking movement to Eltham's Landing was ineffective in cutting off the Confederate retreat. In the Battle of Drewry's Bluff, an attempt by the U.S. Navy to reach Richmond by way of the James River was repulsed.

As McClellan's army reached the outskirts of Richmond, a minor battle occurred at Hanover Court House, but it was followed by a surprise attack by Johnston at the Battle of Seven Pines or Fair Oaks. The battle was inconclusive, with heavy casualties, but it had lasting effects on the campaign. Johnston was wounded and replaced on June 1 by the more aggressive Robert E. Lee, who reorganized his army and prepared for offensive action in the final battles of June 25 to July 1, which are popularly known as the Seven Days Battles.

Read more about Peninsula Campaign:  Background, Opposing Forces, Aftermath and The Seven Days

Other articles related to "peninsula campaign, peninsula, campaign":

Fort Magruder - Peninsula Campaign, General Magruder
... In the American Civil War, the Peninsula Campaign was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater ... to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond by moving up (west) the Virginia Peninsula from Fort Monroe at the eastern tip near the entrance to Hampton Roads to Richmond, about 75 miles (121 km) away ... The Confederate Army of the Peninsula was the primary defensive force, and was commanded by Brig ...
Peninsula Campaign - Aftermath and The Seven Days
... The second phase of the Peninsula Campaign took a negative turn for the Union when Lee launched fierce counterattacks just east of Richmond in the Seven Days Battles (June ... John Pope's army in the Northern Virginia Campaign and the Second Battle of Bull Run ... The Virginia Peninsula was relatively quiet until May 1864, when Maj ...
Louis M. Goldsborough - Naval Service - Civil War Service - Peninsula Campaign
... McClellan to help protect Union forces landing on the Virginia Peninsula at the start of the Peninsula Campaign ...
George Right Smith - The Peninsula Campaign
... See also Wikipedia's Peninsula Campaign article) Gaines Mill and the Battle of Cold Harbor – On June 11, 1862, the Texas Brigade left the Richmond area near Seven Pines to join Stonewall Jackson's command in ... immediately back to Richmond to join in the Peninsula Campaign and what came to be known as the Seven Days Battle, June 25 to July 1 ... Later, in August, the Army of the Potomac withdrew from the Peninsula, ending the Peninsula Campaign and the Battle of Seven Days ...
American Civil War Bibliography - Battles and Campaigns: East - Peninsula Campaign
... Forward to Richmond McClellan's Peninsula Campaign ... The Peninsular Campaign and Its Antecedents ... The Battle of Fair Oaks Turning Point of McClellan's Peninsula Campaign ...

Famous quotes containing the word campaign:

    The winter is to a woman of fashion what, of yore, a campaign was to the soldiers of the Empire.
    Honoré De Balzac (1799–1850)