Pashtun people (Pashto: پښتانه Pax̌tānə; also spelled Pushtun, Pakhtun or Pukhtun), also known as ethnic Afghans (Persian: افغان) or Pathans (Urdu: پٹھان Paṭhān), are an ethnic group with populations primarily in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Belonging to the Eastern Iranian peoples, the group is typically characterised by the usage of the Pashto language and practice of Pashtunwali, which is a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct. Their origins are unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas (Pactyans) between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC, inhabiting the region between the Hindu Kush and Indus River, who may be the early ancestors of the Pashtun people. Since the 3rd century AD onward, they have been referred to by the ethnonym "Afghan".
Often characterised as a warrior and martial race, their history is spread amongst various countries of South, Central and Western Asia, centred around their traditional seat of power in medieval Afghanistan. During the Delhi Sultanate era, the Pashtun Lodi dynasty replaced the Turkic rulers in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. Other Pashtuns fought the Persians and the Mughals before obtaining an independent state in the early-18th century, which began with a successful revolution by Mir Wais Hotak followed by conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani. Pashtuns played a vital role during the Great Game from the 19th century to the 20th century as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British and Russian empires.
Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan; for over 250 years, they have reigned as the dominant ethno-linguistic group, with nearly all rulers being Pashtun. The mujahideen who fought against the Soviet-backed Afghan government in the 1980s were also dominated by Pashtun fighters. They make up the majority of the Taliban and the current Afghan government. They are also an important community in Pakistan, which has the largest Pashtun population and constitute the second-largest ethnic group, having attained presidency there and high rankings in sports.
The Pashtuns are the world's largest (patriarchal) segmentary lineage ethnic group. According to Ethnologue, the total population of the group is estimated to be around 50 million but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400.
Other articles related to "pashtun people, pashtun":
... Further information Women's rights in Afghanistan and Women in Pakistan In Pashtun society there are three levels of women's leadership and legislative authority the national level, the village level, and the family ... Nazo Anaa was a prominent 17th century Pashto poet and an educated Pashtun woman who eventually became the "Mother of Afghan Nationalism" after gaining authority through her poetry ... She used the Pashtunwali law to unite the Pashtun tribes against their Persian enemies ...
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