Participle

A participle is a form of a verb which is used in a sentence to modify a noun or noun phrase, and thus plays a role similar or identical to that of an adjective, or sometimes an adverb. It is one of the types of non-finite verb forms. The word comes from Latin participium, a calque of Greek metochḗ "partaking" or "sharing"; it is so named because the Ancient Greek and Latin participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender, number, case) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice).

Participles may correspond to the active voice (active participles), where the modified noun is taken to represent the agent of the action denoted by the verb; or to the passive voice (passive participles), where the modified noun represents the patient (undergoer) of that action. Participles in particular languages are also often associated with certain verbal aspects or tenses. The two types of participle in English are traditionally called the present participle (forms such as writing, singing and raising; these also serve as gerunds and verbal nouns), and the past participle (forms such as written, sung and raised; regular participles such as the last also serve as the finite past tense).

In some languages, participles can be used in the periphrastic formation of compound verb tenses, aspects or voices. For example, one of the uses of the English present participle is to express continuous aspect (as in John is working), while the past participle can be used in expressions of perfect aspect and passive voice.

A verb phrase based on a participle and having the function of a participle is called a participle phrase or participial phrase (participial is the adjective derived from participle). For example, looking hard at the sign and beaten by his father are participial phrases based respectively on an English present participle and past participle. Participial phrases are a type of non-finite clause.

Some languages use different forms for adverbial participles and adjectival participles; for examples see the information below on specific languages, and in the articles on Russian grammar, Hungarian grammar, Polish grammar, and (for an example of an Inuit language that makes such a distinction) the sophisticated participle system of Sireniki Eskimo.

Other articles related to "participle, participles":

Meaning of Slavic Names - Participle-built Names
... These are derived either from the past participle (in the passive voice), e.g ... Bojan, Chocian, Kochan, Miłowan, Pomian, Stator, Wygnan, or the present participle (in the active voice), e.g ...
Participle - Other Languages - Esperanto
... Esperanto has 6 different participle conjugations active and passive for past, present and future ... The participles are formed as follows Past Present Future Active -int- -ant- -ont- Passive -it- -at- -ot- For example, a falonta botelo is a bottle which will fall ... These examples use the active participles, but the usage of the passive participles is similar ...
Sanskrit Verbs - Participles - Future Participles - Future Participle
... Formed from the future stem just as the present participle is formed from the present stem, the future participle describes an action that has not yet happened, but that may ...
List Of Spanish Irregular Participles - Verbs With Irregular Participle
... Verb Participle Meaning abrir abierto 'open(ed)' cubrir cubierto 'covered' decir dicho 'said' descubrir descubierto 'discovered' escribir escrito 'wri ... Verbs derived from the stems in the table above have participles similar to those of their "parent" verbs — e.g ... Note, however, that this pattern is not followed by corromper, whose participle is regular (corrompido), nor by bendecir and maldecir (see table below) ...
Middle High German Verbs - Verb Forms - Past Participle
... The past participle in Middle High German is formed by prefixing "ge-" to the verb stem, in addition to a dental suffix ("-d-" or "-(e)t-") for weak verbs, or by prefixing "ge-" to the ... The past participle of "sëhen" is "gesëhen" the past participle of "dienen" is "gedienet" ... As in English, the past participle can be used as part of a verbal phrase to form tenses (e.g ...