Nuclear Proliferation

Nuclear proliferation is a term now used to describe the spread of nuclear weapons, fissile material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information, to nations which are not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also known as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty or NPT.

Proliferation has been opposed by many nations with and without nuclear weapons, the governments of which fear that more countries with nuclear weapons may increase the possibility of nuclear warfare (up to and including the so-called "countervalue" targeting of civilians with nuclear weapons), de-stabilize international or regional relations, or infringe upon the national sovereignty of states.

Four countries besides the five recognized Nuclear Weapons States have acquired, or are presumed to have acquired, nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel. None of these four is a party to the NPT, although North Korea acceded to the NPT in 1985, then withdrew in 2003 and conducted announced nuclear tests in 2006 and 2009. One critique of the NPT is that it is discriminatory in recognizing as nuclear weapon states only those countries that tested nuclear weapons before 1968 and requiring all other states joining the treaty to forswear nuclear weapons.

Read more about Nuclear ProliferationNuclear Proliferation, Non-proliferation Efforts, Dual Use Technology, Unsanctioned Nuclear Activity, Arguments in Favor of Proliferation

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Nuclear Weapons Of The United States - Proliferation
... Main article Nuclear proliferation Early on in the development of its nuclear weapons, the United States relied in part on information-sharing with both the United Kingdom and Canada ... These three parties agreed not to share nuclear weapons information with other countries without the consent of the others, an early attempt at nonproliferation ... After the development of the first nuclear weapons during World War II, though, there was much debate within the political circles and public sphere of the United States ...
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... Another argument against nuclear energy is the potential for close connection of civil and military usage (which in most countries are kept strictly separate) ... In manufacturing nuclear fuel rods, the fraction of the fissile uranium isotope 235 has to be increased from the natural fraction from 0.7 to 5% in order to be able to create a chain reaction (exception ... diffusion, gas centrifuge, AVLIS and nuclear reprocessing) ...
Heavy Water Reactor - Purpose of Using Heavy Water - Nuclear Proliferation
... Opponents of heavy water reactors suggest that such reactors pose a much greater risk of nuclear proliferation because of two characteristics (1) they use unenriched uranium as fuel, the acquisition ... these are hazardous radioactive substances that can be used in the production of modern nuclear weapons such as fission, boosted fission, and neutron bombs as ... produced its plutonium for Operation Smiling Buddha, its first nuclear weapon test, by extraction from the spent fuel of a heavy water research reactor known as "CIRUS" ...
Nuclear Proliferation - Arguments in Favor of Proliferation - Nuclear Apartheid - India
... India has also been discussed in the context of nuclear apartheid ... due to protests from those states that already have nuclear weapons ... In light of this, India viewed nuclear weapons as a necessary right for all nations as long as certain states were still in possession of nuclear weapons ...
Friedrich Tinner - Nuclear Proliferation
... A competent nuclear engineer, Tinner left VTA and traveled to Pakistan quite often as he was employed at Khan's Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL) ... Colonel Muammar Gaddafi to join and head the Libyan nuclear program ... From 1980s till 1989, Tinner tried to maintain the Libyan nuclear program and performed illicit and illegal experiments ...

Famous quotes containing the word nuclear:

    The reduction of nuclear arsenals and the removal of the threat of worldwide nuclear destruction is a measure, in my judgment, of the power and strength of a great nation.
    Jimmy Carter (James Earl Carter, Jr.)