**Mathematical logic** (also known as **symbolic logic**) is a subfield of mathematics with close connections to the foundations of mathematics, theoretical computer science and philosophical logic. The field includes both the mathematical study of logic and the applications of formal logic to other areas of mathematics. The unifying themes in mathematical logic include the study of the expressive power of formal systems and the deductive power of formal proof systems.

Mathematical logic is often divided into the fields of set theory, model theory, recursion theory, and proof theory. These areas share basic results on logic, particularly first-order logic, and definability. In computer science (particularly in the ACM Classification) mathematical logic encompasses additional topics not detailed in this article; see logic in computer science for those.

Since its inception, mathematical logic has both contributed to, and has been motivated by, the study of foundations of mathematics. This study began in the late 19th century with the development of axiomatic frameworks for geometry, arithmetic, and analysis. In the early 20th century it was shaped by David Hilbert's program to prove the consistency of foundational theories. Results of Kurt Gödel, Gerhard Gentzen, and others provided partial resolution to the program, and clarified the issues involved in proving consistency. Work in set theory showed that almost all ordinary mathematics can be formalized in terms of sets, although there are some theorems that cannot be proven in common axiom systems for set theory. Contemporary work in the foundations of mathematics often focuses on establishing which parts of mathematics can be formalized in particular formal systems (as in reverse mathematics) rather than trying to find theories in which all of mathematics can be developed.

Read more about Mathematical Logic: Subfields and Scope, History, Formal Logical Systems, Set Theory, Model Theory, Recursion Theory, Proof Theory and Constructive Mathematics, Connections With Computer Science, Foundations of Mathematics

### Other articles related to "logic, mathematical, mathematical logic, logics":

... Turnstile (⊢) Up tack (⊥) Falsum List of

**logic**symbols List of

**mathematical**symbols

**Logic**Overview Academic areas Argumentation theory Axiology Critical thinking Computability theory Formal ...

...

**Logic**Overview Academic areas Argumentation theory Axiology Critical thinking Computability theory Formal semantics History of

**logic**Informal

**logic**Logic in computer science

**Mathematical logic**Mathematics ...

1948) is a British mathematician known for his contributions to Model theory and

**logic**... Previously Reader in

**Mathematical Logic**at the University of Oxford, he was appointed to the Fielden Chair of Pure Mathematics at the University of Manchester ... mathematics with first class honours from University College London in 1969, his MSc (in

**mathematical logic**) from the University of London in 1970, and his PhD from the Bedford College, University of ...

**Mathematical Logic**- Foundations of Mathematics

... Although Kronecker's argument was carried forward by constructivists in the 20th century, the

**mathematical**community as a whole rejected them ... expel us from the Paradise that Cantor has created." With the development of formal

**logic**, Hilbert asked whether it would be possible to prove that an axiom system is consistent by analyzing the ... of mathematics involves nonclassical

**logics**and constructive mathematics ...

... the foundations of mathematics, the fields of

**mathematical logic**and set theory were developed ...

**Mathematical logic**includes the

**mathematical**study of

**logic**and the applications of formal

**logic**to other areas of mathematics set theory is the branch of mathematics that studies sets ... Category theory, which deals in an abstract way with

**mathematical**structures and relationships between them, is still in development ...

### Famous quotes containing the words logic and/or mathematical:

“*Logic* is not a body of doctrine, but a mirror-image of the world. *Logic* is transcendental.”

—Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951)

“What is history? Its beginning is that of the centuries of systematic work devoted to the solution of the enigma of death, so that death itself may eventually be overcome. That is why people write symphonies, and why they discover *mathematical* infinity and electromagnetic waves.”

—Boris Pasternak (1890–1960)