Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong (also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung listen), commonly referred to as Chairman Mao (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), was a Chinese communist revolutionary, political theorist and politician. The founding father of the People's Republic of China from its establishment in 1949, he governed the country as Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China until his death. In this position he converted China into a single-party socialist state, with industry and business being nationalized under state ownership and socialist reforms implemented in all areas of society. Politically a Marxist-Leninist, his theoretical contribution to the ideology along with his military strategies and brand of policies are collectively known as Maoism.

Born the son of a wealthy farmer in Shaoshan, Hunan, Mao adopted a Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist outlook in early life, particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Movement of 1919. Coming to adopt Marxism-Leninism, he became an early member of the Communist Party of China (CPC), soon rising to a senior position. In 1922, the Communists agreed to an alliance with the larger Kuomintang (KMT), a nationalist revolutionary party, whom Mao aided in creating a revolutionary peasant army and organizing rural land reform. In 1927 the KMT's military leader Chiang Kai-shek broke the alliance and set about on an anti-communist purge; in turn, the CPC formed an army of peasant militia, and the two sides clashed in the Chinese Civil War. Mao was responsible for commanding a part of the CPC's Red Army, and after several set backs, rose to power in the party by leading the Long March. When the Empire of Japan invaded China in 1937, sparking the Second Sino-Japanese War, Mao agreed to a united front with the KMT, resulting in a CPC-KMT victory in 1945. The Chinese Civil War then resumed, in which Mao led the Red Army to victory as Chiang and his supporters fled to Taiwan.

In 1949 Mao proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, a one-party socialist state controlled by the Communist Party. After solidifying the reunification of China through his Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, Mao enacted sweeping land reform, overthrowing the feudal landlords before seizing their large estates and dividing the land into people's communes. He proceeded to lead a nationwide political campaign known as the Great Leap Forward from 1958 through to 1961, designed to modernize and industrialize the country, however agrarian problems exasperated by his policies led to widespread famine. In 1966, he initiated the Cultural Revolution, a program to weed out counter-revolutionary elements in Chinese society, which continued until his death.

A deeply controversial figure, Mao is regarded as one of the most important individuals in modern world history. Supporters praise him for modernizing China and building it into a world power, through promoting the status of women, improving education and health care, providing universal housing and raising life expectancy. In addition, China's population almost doubled during the period of Mao's leadership, from around 550 to over 900 million. As a result, Mao is still officially held in high regard by many Chinese as a great political strategist, military mastermind, and savior of the nation. Maoists furthermore promote his role as a theorist, statesman, poet, and visionary, who has inspired revolutionary movements across the globe. In contrast, critics have labeled him a dictator whose administration oversaw systematic human rights abuses, and whose rule is estimated to have caused the deaths of between 40–70 million people through starvation and executions.

Read more about Mao Zedong:  Leadership of China, Death, Legacy, Personal Life, Writings and Calligraphy

Other articles related to "mao zedong, mao":

Mao Zedong - Writings and Calligraphy - Literary Works
... As did most Chinese intellectuals of his generation, Mao received rigorous education in Chinese classical literature ... Many of Mao's poems are still popular in China and a few are taught as a mandatory part of the elementary school curriculum ...
Shao Hua
... Shao was the daughter-in-law of the late Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong and the wife of Mao's second son, Mao Anqing, who had died in 2007 ... October 1938 in Yan'an, Shaanxi province, a former base for Mao Zedong's Communist army following the Long March ... during the 1950s using a camera which had been brought to her from the Soviet Union by Mao Zedong's eldest son, Mao Anying ...
Lucian Pye - Career
... to his 1976 biography of Chairman of the Communist Party of China Mao Zedong, who he imagined as a child and argued Mao Zedong's rebellious attitude stemmed from a desire to recapture his "i ... Blackmer, of the journal Political Science and Politics, cited the Mao Zedong biography as an example of Pye's tendency to use leaps of imagination for "Interpretation and ...
Lin Liguo
... of Project 571 Outline, a plotted coup against Mao Zedong ... Mao Zedong's government claims, that in 1970, under his father Lin Biao's direction, Lin Liguo made a plan known as Project 571 (in Chinese sounds like “rebel by force ...
People's Liberation Army General Political Department - During The Cultural Revolution
... Political Department of the People's Liberation Army played an important role for Mao Zedong during the Cultural Revolution, through its control of "pol ... Members were to study the works of Mao Zedong and emulate the army ... were headed by the General Political Department, the organ by which Mao Zedong and Lin Biao exercised control over the armed forces ...

Famous quotes by mao zedong:

    So long as a person who has made mistakes ... honestly and sincerely wishes to be cured and to mend his ways, we should welcome him and cure his sickness so that he can become a good comrade. We can never succeed if we just let ourselves go and lash at him.
    Mao Zedong (1893–1976)

    Our attitude towards ourselves should be ‘to be satiable in learning’ and towards others ‘to be tireless in teaching.’
    Mao Zedong (1893–1976)

    Classes struggle, some classes triumph, others are eliminated. Such is history; such is the history of civilization for thousands of years.
    Mao Zedong (1893–1976)

    There is in fact no such thing as art for art’s sake, art that stands above classes, art that is detached from or independent of politics. Proletarian literature and art are part of the whole proletarian revolutionary cause.
    Mao Zedong (1893–1976)

    Politics is war without bloodshed while war is politics with bloodshed.
    Mao Zedong (1893–1976)