Logic programming is one of the 4 main programming paradigms. Its theory of computation is based on first order logic. Programming languages such as Prolog and Datalog implement it.
A form of logical sentences commonly found in logic programming, but not exclusively, is the Horn clause. An example is:
- p(X, Y) if q(X) and r(Y)
Logical sentences can be understood purely declaratively. They can also be understood procedurally as goal-reduction procedures : to solve p(X, Y), first solve q(X), then solve r(Y).
The programmer can use the declarative reading of logic programs to verify their correctness. In addition, the programmer can use the known behaviour of the program executor to develop a procedural understanding of his program. This may be helpful when seeking better execution speed. However, many logically-based program transformation techniques have been developed to transform logic programs automatically and make them efficient.
Read more about Logic Programming: History, Prolog, Negation As Failure, Problem Solving, Knowledge Representation, Abductive Logic Programming, Metalogic Programming, Constraint Logic Programming, Concurrent Logic Programming, Inductive Logic Programming, Higher-order Logic Programming, Linear Logic Programming
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