Kalhora Dynasty

Kalhora Dynasty or Kalhoro Dynasty (Urdu: سلسله کلہوڑا‎) (Sindhi: ڪلهوڙا راڄ ) ruled over Sindh and other parts of present day Pakistan for over century. This dynasty was founded by Kalhora chief Mian Nasir Muammad Kalhoro (1657-1692).
Mian Nasir Muhammad was succeeded by his elder son Mian Deen Muhammad who fought against mughals to consolidate his power. After his death Mian Yar Muahmmad became new ruler of Sindh in 1701 AD. He was conferred a prestigious title of Khudayar Khan by Prince Auranzeb. In the year 1736, Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro was officially entitled as the Kalhora Nawab of Sindh by the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.

The Kalhora Dynasty succumbed to King Nader Shah when later invaded India in 1739 AD.One of the most famous Nawab Kalhora was Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro. He is known to have assisted Ahmad Shah Durrani against the Hindu Marathas during the Third Battle of Panipat in order to restore Mughal prestige. Ghulam Shah commanded a large army and fought against the Rao of Kuchh, an ally of the Maratha and an adversary of Sindh in the Thar Desert in the year 1762.

The kalhora Dynasty declined later when Mian Abdul Nabi lost control of Sindh in 1783 and was defeated by his own disciples Talpur Amirs in the Battle of Halani. Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro] was the last Kalhoro Nawab.
The Kalhoro period is most important for the development of Sindhi literature, arts, crafts and irrigation. During Kalhora rule several wah (channels) were dug in every part of Sindh to irrigate the uncultivated land.

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