New Year's Day
The Roman calendar began the year on 1 January, and this remained the start of the year after the Julian reform. However, even after local calendars were aligned to the Julian calendar, they started the new year on different dates. The Alexandrian calendar in Egypt started on 29 August (30 August after an Alexandrian leap year). Several local provincial calendars were aligned to start on the birthday of Augustus, 23 September. The indiction caused the Byzantine year, which used the Julian calendar, to begin on 1 September; this date is still used in the Eastern Orthodox Church for the beginning of the liturgical year. When the Julian calendar was adopted in AD 988 by Vladimir I of Kiev, the year was numbered Anno Mundi 6496, beginning on 1 March, six months after the start of the Byzantine Anno Mundi year with the same number. In 1492 (AM 7000), Ivan III, according to church tradition, realigned the start of the year to 1 September, so that AM 7000 only lasted for six months in Russia, from 1 March to 31 August 1492.
During the Middle Ages 1 January retained the name New Year's Day (or an equivalent name) in all Western European countries (affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church), since the medieval calendar continued to display the months from January to December (in twelve columns containing 28 to 31 days each), just as the Romans had. However, most of those countries began their numbered year on 25 December (the Nativity of Jesus), 25 March (the Incarnation of Jesus), or even Easter, as in France (see the Liturgical year article for more details).
In Anglo-Saxon England, the year most commonly began on 25 December, which, as the winter solstice, had marked the start of the year in pagan times, though 25 March is occasionally documented in the 11th century. Sometimes the start of the year was reckoned as 24 September, the start of the so-called "western indiction" introduced by Bede. These practices changed after the Norman conquest. From 1087 to 1154 the English year began on 1 January, and from 1155 to 1751 on 25 March. In 1752 it was moved back to 1 January.
Even before 1752, 1 January was sometimes treated as the start of the new year – for example by Pepys – while the "year starting 25th March was called the Civil or Legal Year". To reduce misunderstandings on the date, it was not uncommon in parish registers for a new year heading after 24 March, for example 1661, to have another heading at the end of the following December indicating "1661/62". This was to explain to the reader that the year was 1661 Old Style and 1662 New Style.
Most Western European countries shifted the first day of their numbered year to 1 January while they were still using the Julian calendar, before they adopted the Gregorian calendar, many during the 16th century. The following table shows the years in which various countries adopted 1 January as the start of the year. Eastern European countries, with populations showing allegiance to the Orthodox Church, began the year on 1 September from about 988. The Rumi calendar used in the Ottoman empire began the civil year on 1 March until 1918.
|Republic of Venice||1522||1582|
|Holy Roman Empire||1544||1582|
|Dutch Republic except
Holland and Zeeland
|British Empire excluding Scotland||1752||1752|
|Ottoman Empire (Turkey)||1918||1917|
Read more about this topic: Julian Calendar
Other articles related to "year, day, years":
... Deus Ex Human Revolution takes place in the year 2027 ... The science fiction series Fringe season three finale "The Day We Died" takes place around May 20, 2026 ... Power Rangers SPD takes place in the year 2025 ...
... The Galactic year is the time it takes Earth's solar system to revolve once around the galactic center ... It comprises roughly 230 million Earth years ...
... Year 595 (DXCV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar ... The denomination 595 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years ...
... throughout the course of the year ... season extends from May to October while the dry season covers the remainder of the year ... is 24 to 27 °C (75 to 81 °F)) during the day, and 14 to 17 °C (57 to 63 °F) at night ...
... Year 298 (CCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar ... At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Faustus and Gallus (or, less frequently, year 1051 Ab urbe condita) ... The denomination 298 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years ...
Famous quotes containing the words day and/or year:
“The day is always his, who works in it with serenity and great aims.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“Tomorrow in the offices the year on the stamps will be altered;
Tomorrow new diaries consulted, new calendars stand;
With such small adjustments life will again move forward
Implicating us all; and the voice of the living be heard:
It is to us that you should turn your straying attention;
Us who need you, and are affected by your fortune;
Us you should love and to whom you should give your word.”
—Philip Larkin (19221986)