Indian Independence Movement

The term Indian Independence Movement encompasses a wide range of areas like political organisations, philosophies and movements which had the common aim to ending the company rule (East India Company), and then British imperial authority, in parts of South Asia. The independence movement saw various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts, some nonviolent and others not so.

During the first quarter of the 19th century, Rammohan Roy introduced modern education into India. Swami Vivekananda was the chief architect who profoundly projected the rich culture of India to the west at the end of 19th century. Many of the country's political leaders of the 19th and 20th century, including Mahatma Gandhi and Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, were influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda.

The first organised militant movements were in Bengal, but they later took to the political stage in the form of a mainstream movement in the then newly formed Indian National Congress (INC), with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil. The early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political independence proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal, Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.

The last stages of the freedom struggle from the 1920s onwards saw Congress adopt Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's policy of nonviolence and civil resistance, Muhammad Ali Jinnah's constitutional struggle for the rights of minorities in India, and several other campaigns. Legendary figures such as Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Bhagat Singh came to adopt political method of Revolution to the freedom movement, while others like Swami Sahajanand Saraswati wanted both political and economic freedom for India's peasants and toiling masses. Poets including Rabindranath Tagore used literature, poetry and speech as a tool for political awareness. The period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India movement (led by "Mahatma" Gandhi) and the Indian National Army (INA) movement (led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose) and others, eventually resulting in the withdrawal of the British.

The work of these various movements led ultimately to the Indian Independence Act 1947, which created the independent dominions of India and Pakistan. India remained a Dominion of the Crown until 26 January 1950, when the Constitution of India came into force, establishing the Republic of India; Pakistan was a dominion until 1956.

The Indian independence movement was a mass-based movement that encompassed various sections of society. It also underwent a process of constant ideological evolution. Although the basic ideology of the movement was anti-colonial, it was supported by a vision of independent capitalist economic development coupled with a secular, democratic, republican, and civil-libertarian political structure. After the 1930s, the movement took on a strong socialist orientation, due to the increasing influence of left-wing elements in the INC as well as the rise and growth of the Communist Party of India. On the other hand, due to the INC's policies, the All-India Muslim League was formed in 1906 to protect the rights of Muslims in the Indian Sub-continent against the INC and to present a Muslim voice to the British government.

Read more about Indian Independence MovementRise of Indian Nationalism (1885–1905), Partition of Bengal, 1905, All India Muslim League, First World War, Gandhi Arrives in India, The Non-cooperation Movements, Purna Swaraj, Karachi Congress Session-1931, Salt March and Civil Disobedience, Elections and The Lahore Resolution, Revolutionary Activities, The Climax of Indian Independence Movement, Independence and Partition of India

Other articles related to "indian independence movement, indian, movement, indian independence, independence":

Nehru-Gandhi Family - Family Tree - First Generation
... was a lawyer, a prominent leader of the Indian independence movement and an important leader of the Indian National Congress, who also served as the Congress President twice, 1919–1920 and 1928–1929 ... She became active in the Indian independence movement when her husband and son were jailed by the British ... He was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement and had succeeded his father as President of the Congress in 1929 ...
Indian Independence Movement - Independence and Partition of India
... History of the Republic of India, Partition of India, and Pakistan movement On 3 June 1947, Viscount Louis Mountbatten, the last British Governor-General of India, announced the ... speedy passage through the British Parliament of the Indian Independence Act 1947, at 1157 on 14 August 1947 Pakistan was declared a separate nation, and at 1202, just after midnight, on 15 August 1947, India also ... Patel took on the responsibility of bringing into the Indian Union 565 princely states, steering efforts by his “iron fist in a velvet glove” policies, exemplified by ...
List Of People From Tamil Nadu - Indian Independence Movement
... as Alagumuthu konar or Yadav) was an Indian revolutionary and independence activist ... of India Queen of Sivagangai Chempakaraman Pillai, an Indian warrior who attacked the East India Company from the Emden Submarine ... Maadasamy Pillai, first male suicide bomber who fought for the Indian Independence for the first time in the world S ...
The Indian Sociologist - See Also
... India House Indian independence movement (revolutionary) Shyamji Krishna Varma Lajpat Rai Dadabhai Naoroji Bhikaiji Cama S ... Rana Henry Hyndman Indian Home Rule Society V.D ... Khaparde Abhinav Bharat Society Free India Society The Indian Sociologist The Indian War of Independence Paris Indian Society Bande Mataram Talvar Berlin Committee ...
S. Srinivasa Iyengar - Political Activities - Indian Independence Movement
... He attended the historically significant 1907 session of the Indian National Congress held at Surat which is remembered for the split between the ... He joined the Indian National Congress and participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement ... Srinivasa Iyengar chaired the reception committee of the 29th session of the Indian National Congress which met in Madras ...

Famous quotes containing the words movement, indian and/or independence:

    Reporters for tabloid newspapers beat a path to the park entrance each summer when the national convention of nudists is held, but the cult’s requirement that visitors disrobe is an obstacle to complete coverage of nudist news. Local residents interested in the nudist movement but as yet unwilling to affiliate make observations from rowboats in Great Egg Harbor River.
    —For the State of New Jersey, U.S. public relief program (1935-1943)

    The Indian resists curiosity by a stony silence. The Negro offers a featherbed resistance. That is, we let the probe enter, but it never comes out. It gets smothered under a lot of laughter and pleasantries.
    Zora Neale Hurston (1891–1960)

    In a famous Middletown study of Muncie, Indiana, in 1924, mothers were asked to rank the qualities they most desire in their children. At the top of the list were conformity and strict obedience. More than fifty years later, when the Middletown survey was replicated, mothers placed autonomy and independence first. The healthiest parenting probably promotes a balance of these qualities in children.
    Richard Louv (20th century)