Human Spaceflight

Human spaceflight (or manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is space travel with humans on the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is manned, it can be piloted directly, as opposed to machine or robotic space probes controlled remotely by humans or through automatic methods on board the spacecraft.

The first manned spaceflight was launched by the Soviet Union on April 12, 1961 as a part of the Vostok programme of space exploration, with a cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on board.

Currently, only Russia and China maintain human spaceflight capability independent of international cooperation. As of 2011, human spaceflights are being actively launched by the Soyuz programme conducted by the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Shenzhou program conducted by the China National Space Administration. This does not account for private non-government activities.

The U.S. lost human spaceflight launch capability upon retirement of the Space Shuttle on July 21, 2011. Under the Bush administration, the Constellation Program included plans for canceling the Shuttle and replacing it with the capability for spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit. In the 2011 United States federal budget, the Obama administration proposed canceling Constellation in part due to Constellation being over budget and behind schedule while not innovating and investing in critical new technologies. Under the new plan, NASA would rely on transportation services provided by the private sector, such as Space X's Falcon 9. The period between the retirement of the Shuttle and the initial operational capability of new systems (either Constellation or the new commercial proposals), similar to the gap between the cancellation of Apollo and the first Space Shuttle flight, is often referred to as the human spaceflight gap.

In recent years there has been a gradual movement towards more commercial forms of spaceflight. A number of non-governmental startup companies have sprung up in recent years, hoping to create a space tourism industry. For a list of such companies, and the spacecraft they are currently building, see List of private spaceflight companies. NASA has also tried to stimulate private spaceflight through programs such as Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) and Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS). With its 2011 budget proposals released in early February 2010, the Obama administration is moving towards a model where commercial companies would supply NASA with transportation services of both crew and cargo to low Earth orbit. The vehicles used for these services would then serve both NASA and potential commercial customers. NASA intends to spend $6 billion in the coming years to develop commercial crew vehicles, using a model similar to that used under COTS.

Read more about Human SpaceflightSpace Programs, National Spacefaring Attempts, Safety Concerns

Other articles related to "human spaceflight, spaceflight, human":

Human Spaceflight - Safety Concerns - Fatality Risk
... See also Space accidents and incidents#Spaceflight fatalities As of 2010, 18 crew members have died during actual spaceflight missions (see table) ... others have died in accidents during activity directly related to spaceflight missions or testing ...
Silver Snoopy Award - Requirements
... beyond their normal work requirements to the development and implementation of human spaceflight programs while ensuring quality and safety ... that have had significant impact on attainment of a particular human spaceflight program goal while ensuring quality and safety ... Contributed to a major cost saving or a series of lesser cost savings pertaining directly to human spaceflight programs ...
Indian Human Spaceflight Program
... The Indian human spaceflight programme is a proposal by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to develop and launch the ISRO Orbital Vehicle, which is to carry a two-member crew to Low Earth ... The recent reports indicate that the human spaceflight may be after 2017, on a GSLV-Mk III, as venture is not part of the 12th five-year plan (2012-2017) ... may not happen in this decade, as ISRO does not have a human-rated launch vehicle and there is a budgetary constraints from the Union Government ...
Space Exploration - History of Exploration in The 20th Century
... World War II while testing the V-2 rocket, which became the first human-made object in space on 3 October 1942 with the launching of V-4 ... First human flights The first successful human spaceflight was Vostok 1 ("East 1"), carrying 27 year old Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on 12 April 1961 ... an entirely new era in space exploration human spaceflight ...
Michael D. Griffin - Questions Concerning NASA Budget Management
... portions of NASA's budget from science to manned spaceflight ... shift "one thin dime" of funding from science to human spaceflight, but less than six months later, in February 2006, after NASA Constellation funding did not reach requested levels ... The NASA field centers focused mainly on science rather than on human spaceflight, such as Ames and Glenn Research Center, have seen general budgetary downsizing, and ...

Famous quotes containing the word human:

    If human beings are to survive in a nuclear age, committing acts of violence may eventually have to become as embarrassing as urinating or defecating in public are today.
    Myriam Miedzian, U.S. author. Boys Will Be Boys, ch. 3 (1991)