Reciprocal altruism is the idea that the incentive for an individual to help in the present is based on the expectation of the potential receipt in the future. R. Trivers believes it to be advantageous for an organism to pay a cost to his or her own life for another non-related organism if the favor is repaid (only when the benefit of the sacrifice outweighs the cost).
As Peter Singer notes, “reciprocity is found amongst all social mammals with long memories who live in stable communities and recognize each other as individuals.” Individuals should identify cheaters (those who do not reciprocate help) who lose the benefit of help from them in the future, as seen in blood-sharing in vampire bats.
Trade in economic trades and business may underlie reciprocal altruism in which products given and received involve different exchanges. Economic trades follow the “I’ll scratch your back if you scratch mine” principle. A pattern of frequent giving and receiving of help among workers boost both productivity and social standing.
Other articles related to "reciprocal altruism, altruism":
... following emotional dispositions and their evolution can be understood in terms of regulation of altruism ... A fine regulation of altruism can be associated with gratitude and sympathy in terms of cost/benefit and the level in which the beneficiary will ... Guilt and repetitive altruism ...
... Ib Ulbæk invokes another standard Darwinian principle — 'reciprocal altruism' — to explain the unusually high levels of intentional honesty necessary for language to evolve ... 'Reciprocal altruism' can be expressed as the principle that if you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours ... Ordinary Darwinian reciprocal altruism, Ulbæk points out, is a relationship established between frequently interacting individuals ...
Famous quotes containing the word reciprocal:
“Parenting is a profoundly reciprocal process: we, the shapers of our childrens lives, are also being shaped. As we struggle to be parents, we are forced to encounter ourselves; and if we are willing to look at what is happening between us and our children, we may learn how we came to be who we are.”
—Augustus Y. Napier (20th century)