The green algae (singular: green alga) are the large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. As such, they form a paraphyletic group, although the group including both green algae and embryophytes is monophyletic (and often just known as kingdom Plantae). The green algae include unicellular and colonial flagellates, most with two flagella per cell, as well as various colonial, coccoid, and filamentous forms, and macroscopic seaweeds. In the Charales, the closest relatives of higher plants, full differentiation of tissues occurs. There are about 6,000 species of green algae. Many species live most of their lives as single cells, while other species form colonies, coenobia, long filaments, or highly differentiated macroscopic seaweeds.
A few other organisms rely on green algae to conduct photosynthesis for them. The chloroplasts in euglenids and chlorarachniophytes were acquired from ingested green algae, and in the latter retain a vestigial nucleus (nucleomorph). Green algae are also found symbiotically in the ciliate Paramecium, and in Hydra viridis and flatworms. Some species of green algae, particularly of genera Trebouxia and Pseudotrebouxia (Trebouxiophyceae), can be found in symbiotic associations with fungi to form lichens. In general the fungal species that partner in lichens cannot live on their own, while the algal species is often found living in nature without the fungus. Trentepohlia is a green alga living on humid soil, rocks or tree bark.
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... degraded resulting in Massive algal blooms (including blue-green algae of the genus cyanobacter) due to over enrichment with plant nutrients Periodic episodes of ... (II) from sediments and Maintaining green algae and diatoms species dominance and preventing the proliferation of less desirable blue-green algae ...
... All green algae and land plants are now known to form a single evolutionary lineage or clade, one name for which is Viridiplantae (i.e ... 'green plants') ... The streptophyte algae (i.e ...
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... The green algae, including the characean algae, have served as model experimental organisms to understand the mechanisms of the ionic and water permeability of membranes ...
... a term which at the time did not include blue-green algae) and the blue-green algae had a single origin, a conviction which culminated in Stanier writing in a letter in 1970, "I think it is now quite evident that ... Pringsheim writing in 1949, suspected separate origins for bacteria and blue-green algae ... to refer to what had been called blue-green algae, marking the acceptance of this group within the Monera ...
Famous quotes containing the words algae and/or green:
“there, where you live,
the algae of your dreams.”
—Denise Levertov (b. 1923)
“When in our music God is glorified,
and adoration leaves no room for pride,
it is as though the whole creation cried Alleluia!”
—Frederick Pratt Green (b. 1903)