Like other noblemen from Albania, Gjon also became Ottoman vassal after 1385. In 1402 together with other Ottoman vassals from Albania he supported Bayezid I in the Battle of Ankara. Gjon Kastrioti accepted the suzerainty and was made a citizen of Venice in 1413, along with his inheritors. Kastrioti maintained good relations with Venice after becoming an Ottoman vassal between 1415 and 1417, and was not likely to endanger the relations by seizing the Cape from Venice. The Venetians tried to bribe Kastriotis and Dukagjinis to fight against the Zeta in 1419, but it seems without success.
In the period 1419—1426 Gjon was an ally of Serbian Despot Stefan Lazarević, who was also an Ottoman vassal. Lazarević had been ceded Lordship of Zeta from Balša III in 1421, but the Venetians did not recognize him, holding on to the occupied Zetan coast and Bojana, including Drivast. In August 1421, Lazarević led armies into Zeta and took Sveti Srdj, Drivast and Bar; the Venetians concluded a truce and now held only the towns of Skadar, Ulcinj and Budva; when Lazarević demanded the surrender of these towns, Venice refused and war resumed. A number of Gjon Kastrioti's Albanians led by one of his sons joined Lazarević immediately upon the arrival of the latter in Zeta. According to Fan Noli it was Stanisha who was sent by his father, together with auxiliary forces, to help Serbian despot to capture Scutari from Venetians. Lazarević besieged Scutari, probably in June 1422, and for a year, it seemed that Venice would have lost their possessions, however, supported by some local Albanians, Venice managed to break the siege in December 1422. In January 1423, Venice bribed and won over the Pamaliots on Bojana, and then bought over several tribal leader in or near Zeta: the Paštrovići, Gjon Kastrioti (who had extended to the outskirts of Alessio), the Dukagjins, and Koja Zaharija. Though none of these were mobilized militarly by Venice, they left the ranks of Lazarević's army, thus became a potential danger to Lazarević. Although Venetian admiral Francesco Bembo offered money to Kastrioti, Dukagjins and to Koja Zaharija in April 1423 to join the Venetian forces against Serbian Despotate (offering 300 ducats to Gjon Kastrioti), they refused.
From time to time one or more of Gjon's sons were sent as a hostages to Ottoman court. In 1428 Gjon Kastrioti had to seek forgiveness from the Venetian Senate because of Skanderbeg's participation in Ottoman military campaigns against Christians. At the beginning of the 15th century Šufaday (important former marketplace on the Adriatic sea, near Lezhë) was a possession of Jonima family and in 1428 it was under Gjon's control. At that time region of Šufadaj was rich with forests and the wood was transported trough its port to Ragusa.
In attempt to relieve Ottoman pressure during the Siege of Thessalonica Venice inspired Gjon to rebel against Ottomans in 1428. In April 1430, after Ottomans captured Thessalonica, they captured most of Gjon's land. Ottoman forces were led by Isak-Beg who was a sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Skopje. He positioned Ottoman garrison in two Gjon's castles and destroyed rest of them. Only small part of Gjon's former territory remained under his control.
In 1430's Gjon Kastrioti joined an unsuccessful uprising against the Ottoman Empire led by Gjergj Arianiti. Gjon was again defeated by the Ottoman forces of Isak-Beg.
Gjon died in on 4 May 1437. The territory previously controlled by Gjon Kastrioti was annexed by the Ottomans and listed in their registers as land of Yuvan-ili (Yuvan was Gjon's name on Turkish language). Until 1438 a part of Gjon Kastrioti's estates comprising nine villages was awarded to Skanderbeg as his timar and in May 1438 those nine villages had been awarded to André Karlo. The granting of these villages to André Karlo must have upset Skanderbeg who requested to be granted with control over the zeamet in Misia consisting of his father's former domain. Sanjakbey (probably of the Sanjak of Ohrid) objected Skanderbeg's request.
Read more about this topic: Gjon Kastrioti
Other articles related to "life":
... Very little is known about Widukind's life ... There are no sources about Widukind's life or death after his baptism ... Abbey has been identified as a likely location where Widukind may have spent the rest of his life ...
... (ii) faith in the Master and (iii) faith in life ... Faith is so indispensable to life that unless it is present in some degree, life itself would be impossible ... It is because of faith that cooperative and social life becomes possible ...
... for organisms at any time throughout their life cycle ... external and internal environments, however, is an abstraction parsing life and environment into units or facts that are inseparable in reality ... and effect between the environment and life ...
... The Russian orbital segment's life support systems are contained in the Service Module Zvezda ... The MLM Nauka laboratory has a complete set of life support systems ...
... A biological half-life or elimination half-life is the time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose one-half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiological activity ... In a medical context, the half-life may also describe the time that it takes for the concentration in blood plasma of a substance to reach one-half ... For example, the biological half-life of water in a human being is about seven to 14 days, though this can be altered by his/her behavior ...
Famous quotes containing the word life:
“As life developed, I faced each problem as it came along. As my activities and work broadened and reached out, I never tried to shirk. I tried never to evade an issue. When I found I had something to doI just did it.”
—Eleanor Roosevelt (18841962)
“To regard the imagination as metaphysics is to think of it as part of life, and to think of it as part of life is to realize the extent of artifice. We live in the mind.”
—Wallace Stevens (18791955)
“When I wrote the following pages, or rather the bulk of them, I lived alone, in the woods, a mile from any neighbor, in a house which I had built myself, on the shore of Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, and earned my living by the labor of my hands only. I lived there two years and two months. At present I am a sojourner in civilized life again.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)