The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is a northwest-southeast trending volcanic chain in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains that extends from Watts Point in the south to the Ha-Iltzuk Icefield in the north. This chain of volcanoes is located in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. It forms the northernmost segment of the Cascade Volcanic Arc, which includes Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker. Most volcanoes of the Garibaldi chain are dormant stratovolcanoes and subglacial volcanoes that have been eroded by glacial ice. Less common volcanic landforms include cinder cones, volcanic plugs, lava domes and calderas. These diverse formations were created by different styles of volcanic activity, including Peléan and Plinian eruptions.
Eruptions along the length of the chain have created at least three major volcanic zones. The first began in the Powder Mountain Icefield 4.0 million years ago. The Mount Cayley massif began its formation during this period. Multiple eruptions from 2.2 million to 2,350 years ago created the Mount Meager massif, and eruptions 1.3 million to 9,300 years ago formed Mount Garibaldi and other volcanoes in the Garibaldi Lake area. These major volcanic zones lie in three echelon segments, referred to as the northern, central, and southern segments. Each segment contains one of the three major volcanic zones. Apart from these large volcanic zones, two large poorly studied volcanic complexes lie at the northern end of the Pacific Ranges, namely Silverthrone Caldera and Franklin Glacier Volcano. They are considered to be part of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, but their tectonic relationships to other volcanoes in the Garibaldi chain are unclear because of minimal studies.
Read more about Garibaldi Volcanic Belt: Volcanic Hazards
... Mount Meager is part of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, the northernmost segment of the Cascade Volcanic Arc ... This volcanic belt includes cinder cones, calderas, stratovolcanoes and subglacial volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene period (10,000 years ago to present) ... The latest explosive eruption in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt occurred at a crater on the northeastern flank of Mount Meager, which forms a clearly defined depression ...
... The threat from lava flows in the Garibaldi Belt is minor unless an eruption takes place in winter or under or adjacent to areas of glacial ice, such as ice fields ... If water were to enter a volcanic vent that is erupting basaltic lava, it may create a massive explosive eruption ... Therefore, the existence of water, snow, or glacial ice at a volcanic vent would increase the risk of an eruption having a large impact on the surrounding region ...
... Other volcanic techniques, such as hazard mapping, displays a volcano's eruptive history in detail and speculates an understanding of the hazardous activity that ... A large volcanic hazard program has never existed within the Geological Survey of Canada ... Caldera and other volcanoes in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is not as established, but certain contributions are being done at least Mount Cayley ...
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