Emperor Xianzong of Tang (simplified Chinese: 唐宪宗; traditional Chinese: 唐憲宗) (778–February 14, 820; r. 805 – 820), personal name Li Chun (李純), né Li Chun (李淳), was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. He was the eldest son of Emperor Shunzong, who reigned for less than a year in 805 and who yielded the throne to him late that year.
Once emperor, Emperor Xianzong set out to curb the power of the military governors (Jiedushi), and, when they would not heed his orders, he waged wars against them. His initial campaigns were quite successful, and Xianzong's army defeated warlords such as Liu Pi, Yang Huilin (楊惠琳) in 806 and Li Qi in 807. In 813, after the submission of one of the key holdouts, Weibo Circuit (魏博, headquartered in modern Handan, Hebei) under Tian Xing, Emperor Xianzong appeared poised to reunite the empire, many parts of which had effectively been ruled independently by regional warlords. Xianzong's first setback was in 813 when he failed to defeat military governor Wang Chengzong. However, by 817, after the defeat of Li Shidao and Wang's submission, all of the empire was under imperial authority again. Later historians referred to Emperor Xianzong's reign as the Yuanhe Restoration (元和中興).
Emperor Xianzong's reign briefly stabilized Tang from the destructive forces of the military governors, but saw the rise of the power of eunuchs. Emperor Xianzong himself was allegedly murdered by the eunuch Chen Hongzhi (陳弘志) in 820. (There were nagging suspicions, never proven, that Xianzong's wife Consort Guo and her son Li Heng (who succeeded Xianzong as Emperor Muzong) were involved.)
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