The **mass density** or **density** of a material is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho). Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume:

where ρ is the density, *m* is the mass, and *V* is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is also defined as its weight per unit volume, although this quantity is more properly called specific weight.

Different materials usually have different densities, so density is an important concept regarding buoyancy, purity and packaging. Osmium and iridium are the densest known elements at standard conditions for temperature and pressure but not the densest materials.

Less dense fluids float on more dense fluids if they do not mix. This concept can be extended, with some care, to less dense solids floating on more dense fluids. If the average density (including any air below the waterline) of an object is less than water it will float in water and if it is more than water's it will sink in water.

In some cases density is expressed as the dimensionless quantities specific gravity or relative density, in which case it is expressed in multiples of the density of some other standard material, usually water or air/gas. (For example, a specific gravity less than one means that the substance floats in water.)

The mass density of a material varies with temperature and pressure. (The variance is typically small for solids and liquids and much greater for gasses.) Increasing the pressure on an object decreases the volume of the object and therefore increase its density. Increasing the temperature of a substance (with some exceptions) decreases its density by increasing the volume of that substance. In most materials, heating the bottom of a fluid results in convection of the heat from bottom to top of the fluid due to the decrease of the density of the heated fluid. This causes it to rise relative to more dense unheated material.

The reciprocal of the density of a substance is called its specific volume, a representation commonly used in thermodynamics. Density is an intensive property in that increasing the amount of a substance does not increase its density; rather it increases its mass.

Read more about Density: History, Measurement of Density, Changes of Density, Density of Water (at 1 Atm), Density of Air (at 1 Atm), Density of Solutions, Densities of Various Materials, Other Densities, Other Common Units

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... In probability and statistics,

**density**estimation is the construction of an estimate, based on observed data, of an unobservable underlying probability

**density**function ... The unobservable

**density**function is thought of as the

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**Density**- Other Common Units

... The SI unit for

**density**is kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m3) Litres and metric tons are not part of the SI, but are acceptable for use with it, leading to the following units kilograms per litre (kg/L ... Liquid water has a

**density**of about 1 kg/dm3, making any of these SI units numerically convenient to use as most solids and liquids have densities between 0.1 and 20 kg/dm3 ... kg/m3 megagrams (metric tons) per cubic metre (Mg/m3) In US customary units

**density**can be stated in Avoirdupois ounces per cubic inch (oz/cu in ...

... If one accumulates matter at nuclear

**density**(the

**density**of the nucleus of an atom, about 1018 kg/m3 neutron stars also reach this

**density**), such an accumulation would fall within its own ...

... It states that

**density**differences are sufficiently small to be neglected, except where they appear in terms multiplied by g, the acceleration due to gravity ... approximation is used since sound waves move via

**density**variations ... when considering a flow of, say, warm and cold water of

**density**and one needs only consider a single

**density**the difference is negligible ...