Chad (Arabic: تشاد‎,Tšād; French: Tchad i/ˈtʃæd/), officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west.

Chad is divided into multiple regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanese savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second largest in Africa. Chad's highest peak is the Emi Koussi in the Sahara, and N'Djamena, (formerly Fort-Lamy), the capital, is the largest city. Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. Arabic and French are the official languages. Islam and Christianity are the most widely practiced religions.

Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium BC, a series of states and empires rose and fell in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1979, the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby. Since 2003, the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad.

While many political parties are active, power lies firmly in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad remains plagued by political violence and recurrent attempted coups d'état (see Battle of N'Djamena (2006) and Battle of N'Djamena (2008)). Chad is one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world; most inhabitants live in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers. Since 2003, crude oil has become the country's primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry. Chad is considered a failed state by the Fund for Peace.

Read more about Chad:  History, Politics and Government, Humanitarian Situation, Regions, Departments, and Sub-prefectures, Geography, Economy and Infrastructure, Demographics, Religion, Culture

Other articles related to "chad":

Tibesti Soda Lake
... Tibesti Soda Lake is a highly saline, soda-type lake in the Tibesti Mountains of Chad ... Lakes in Chad Chad Fitri Fianga Katam Tibesti Soda Lake Yoa ...
Chari Department
... making up the region of Chari-Baguirmi in Chad ... Subprefectures Mandélia La Loumia Koundoul Linia Lougoun (Logone Gana) Departments of Chad Current Abdi Aboudeïa Abtouyour Assoungha Baguirmi Bahr el Gazel Nord Bahr el Gazel Sud Barh Azoum ...
The Nephew - Plot
... the death of his mother, an Irish immigrant, Chad has traveled overseas to the small island community which was his mother's hometown ... the initial prejudices of his mother's estranged family, Chad finds himself the unwitting center of an ongoing conflict between his uncle Tony (Donal McCann) and local bar owner Joe ... Further complications ensue when Chad develops a relationship with Brady's daughter Aislin (Aislin McGuckin), as her jealous friend Peter O'Boyce (David Quinn) looks on in disgust and arousal ...
Chad - Culture
... Day December 25 Christmas Because of its great variety of peoples and languages, Chad possesses a rich cultural heritage ... and national traditions by opening the Chad National Museum and the Chad Cultural Centre ... The music of Chad includes a number of unusual instruments such as the kinde, a type of bow harp the kakaki, a long tin horn and the hu hu, a stringed ...
Blackout (Hed PE Album) - Track Listing
... "Dangerous" Chad Jahred Wes 326 4 ... Chad Dj Product Jahred Mawk Wes 343 7 ... "Half The Man" Chad Jahred Wes 442 8 ...