Cellulosic Ethanol

Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel produced from wood, grasses, or the inedible parts of plants.

It is a type of biofuel produced from lignocellulose, a structural material that comprises much of the mass of plants. Lignocellulose is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Corn stover, Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Miscanthus grass species, wood chips and the byproducts of lawn and tree maintenance are some of the more popular cellulosic materials for ethanol production. Production of ethanol from lignocellulose has the advantage of abundant and diverse raw material compared to sources such as corn and cane sugars, but requires a greater amount of processing to make the sugar monomers available to the microorganisms typically used to produce ethanol by fermentation.

Switchgrass and Miscanthus are the major biomass materials being studied today, due to their high productivity per acre. Cellulose, however, is contained in nearly every natural, free-growing plant, tree, and bush, in meadows, forests, and fields all over the world without agricultural effort or cost needed to make it grow.

According to U.S. Department of Energy studies conducted by Argonne National Laboratory of the University of Chicago, one of the benefits of cellulosic ethanol is it reduces greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 85% over reformulated gasoline. By contrast, starch ethanol (e.g., from corn), which most frequently uses natural gas to provide energy for the process, may not reduce GHG emissions at all depending on how the starch-based feedstock is produced. According to the National Academy of Sciences, there is no commercially viable bio-refinery in existence to convert lignocellulosic biomass to fuel.

Read more about Cellulosic EthanolHistory, Production Methods, Economics, Environmental Effects: Corn-based Vs. Grass-based, Feedstocks, Cellulosic Ethanol Commercialization

Other articles related to "cellulosic ethanol, ethanol":

Cellulosic Ethanol Commercialization
... Cellulosic ethanol commercialization is the process of building an industry out of methods of turning cellulose-containing organic matter into fuel ... are building refineries that can process biomass and turn it into ethanol, while companies such as Genencor, Diversa, Novozymes, and Dyadic are ... The cellulosic ethanol industry developed some new commercial-scale plants in 2008 ...
Cellulosic Ethanol Commercialization - Commercialization By Country - United States - Government Support
... research to develop better cellulose hydrolysis enzymes and ethanol-fermenting organisms, to engineering studies of potential processes, to co-funding initial ethanol from ... bill that will accelerate the commercialization of advanced biofuels, including cellulosic ethanol. 21 billion US gallons (79,000,000 m3) of cellulosic ethanol could be produced per year by 2022 without displacing current crops ...
Chemical Derivatives Of Ethanol - Production - Fermentation - Cellulosic Ethanol
... Main article Cellulosic ethanol Sugars for ethanol fermentation can be obtained from cellulose ... The Canadian firm Iogen brought the first cellulose-based ethanol plant on-stream in 2004 ... States Department of Energy, has invested heavily in the commercialization of cellulosic ethanol ...
Cellulosic Ethanol Commercialization - Cellulosic Ethanol Production
... Cellulosic ethanol can be produced from a diverse array of feedstocks, such as wood pulp from trees or any plant matter ... wheat and grinding that down to get starch and gluten, then taking the starch, cellulosic ethanol production involves the use of the whole crop ...
Saccharophagus Degradans
... degradans) is a bacterium which can perform the function of fermenting xylose to ethanol ... degradans from Chesapeake Bay was effectively used to produce cellulosic ethanol ... Cellulosic ethanol production by means of bacterial action could be the key cheap production of cellulosic ethanol for global mass market production of bioethanol ...