Bad faith (Latin: mala fides) is double mindedness or double heartedness in duplicity, fraud, or deception. It may involve intentional deceit of others, or self deception.
The expression “bad faith” is associated with “double heartedness”, which is also translated as “double mindedness”. A bad faith belief may be formed through self deception, being double minded, or "of two minds", which is associated with faith, belief, attitude, and loyalty. In the 1913 Webster’s Dictionary, bad faith was equated with being double hearted, "of two hearts", or “a sustained form of deception which consists in entertaining or pretending to entertain one set of feelings, and acting as if influenced by another”. The concept is similar to perfidy, or being "without faith", in which deception is achieved when one side in a conflict promises to act in good faith (e.g. by raising a flag of surrender) with the intention of breaking that promise once the enemy has exposed himself. After Jean-Paul Sartre’s analysis of the concepts of self deception and bad faith, bad faith has been examined in specialized fields as it pertains to self deception as two semi-independently acting minds within one mind, with one deceiving the other.
Some examples of bad faith include: a company representative who negotiates with union workers while having no intent of compromising; a prosecutor who argues a legal position that he knows to be false; an insurer who uses language and reasoning which are deliberately misleading in order to deny a claim.
Bad faith may be viewed in some cases to not involve deception, as in some kinds of hypochondria with actual physical manifestations. There is a question about the truth or falsity of statements made in bad faith self deception; for example, if hypochondriac makes a complaint about their psychosomatic health, is it true or false?
Bad faith has been used as a term of art in diverse areas involving feminism, racial supremacism, political negotiation, insurance claims processing, intentionality, ethics, existentialism, and the law.
Other articles related to "bad faith, bad":
... Agreeing with the First Circuit's opinion, the Court held that there is a bad faith exception to the right to convert from Chapter 7 to Chapter 11 ... None of the specified causes mentions prepetition bad-faith conduct.. ...
... Bad faith is associated with being double minded, or of divided loyalty ... these unchosen loyalties, and this exhibits bad faith as a type of lack of integrity once we have such loyalties, we are resistant to their scrutiny and self-defensively discount challenges to them in ... of patriotism (loyalty to one's country) bad faith is hiding from oneself the true source of some of one’s patriotic beliefs, such as when one fights for a racist ...
... Bad faith in political science and political psychology refers to negotiating strategies in which there is no real intention to reach compromise, or a model of ... The "inherent bad faith model" of information processing is a theory in political psychology that was first put forth by Ole Holsti to explain the relationship between John Foster Dulles ...
... As defined by Sartre, "bad faith" is lying to oneself ... Specifically, it is failing to acknowledge one's own ability to act and determine one's possibilities, falling back on the determinations of the various historical and current totalisations which have produced one as if they relieved one of one's freedom to do so ...
... This is not, of itself, considered to be bad faith ... to determine if the destruction of the notes was bad faith ... notes, it will generally not be considered to be bad faith ...
Famous quotes containing the words faith and/or bad:
“My faith and troth I give back to thee,
So may thy soul have rest.”
—Unknown. The Brown Girl (l. 5152)
“I have known a vast quantity of nonsense talked about bad men not looking you in the face. Dont trust that conventional idea. Dishonesty will stare honesty out of countenance any day in the week, if there is anything to be got by it.”
—Charles Dickens (18121870)