Austria

Austria (i/ˈɔːstriə/ or /ˈɒstriə/; German: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich), is a landlocked country of roughly 8.47 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The territory of Austria covers 83,855 square kilometres (32,377 sq mi) and has a temperate and alpine climate. Austria's terrain is highly mountainous due to the presence of the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 metres (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speak local Austro-Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.

The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty when the vast majority of the country was a part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Austria became one of the great powers of Europe and, in response to the coronation of Napoleon I as the Emperor of the French, the Austrian Empire was officially proclaimed in 1804. In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary.

After the collapse of the Habsburg (Austro-Hungarian) Empire in 1918 at the end of World War I, Austria adopted and used the name the Republic of German-Austria ("Deutschösterreich", later "Österreich") in an attempt for union with Germany, but was forbidden due to the Treaty of Saint Germain. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919. In the 1938 Anschluss, Austria was occupied and annexed by Nazi Germany. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies and Austria's former democratic constitution was restored. In 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral.

Today, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $46,330 (2012 est.). The country has developed a high standard of living and in 2011 was ranked 19th in the world for its Human Development Index. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, and is a founder of the OECD. Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the European currency, the euro, in 1999.

Read more about Austria:  Etymology, History, Politics, Administrative Divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics

Other articles related to "austria":

Kurt Schuschnigg
... in July 1934, until Nazi Germany’s annexing of Austria, (Anschluss), in March 1938 ... He was opposed to Hitler’s ambitions to absorb Austria into the Third Reich ... After his efforts to keep Austria independent had failed he resigned his office ...
Triple Alliance (1882) - Austria–Hungary
... Slavic opposition in the occupied Balkans grew and both Russia and Austria–Hungary saw an opportunity to expand in this region ... In 1876, Russia offered to partition the Balkans, but Andrássy declined because Austria–Hungary was already a "saturated" state and it could not cope with additional territories ... Turkey and Russia over the control of Serbia, Austria–Hungary declared neutrality when the conflict between the two powers escalated into the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) ...
Vanilla Ninja - History - 2003/2004: Expansion Into Europe and 2nd Album
... have launched themselves as a band in three German speaking countries of Europe – Germany, Austria and Switzerland ... the song was released in Germany on December 8, 2003, and then later in Austria and Switzerland on January 4 and February 8, 2004 respectively ... channel, and making the top twenty in both Germany and Austria ...
Wolfgang Schüssel - President of The European Council
... Austria succeeded the United Kingdom in holding the European Council Presidency on 1 January 2006 ... and Merkel promised that Germany would do everything to "help" Austria during its presidency and make it a success ... Schüssel also stated that Austria needed "some friends of the presidency" ...
2006 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship Squads - Group A - Austria
... Player DoB/Age Caps Club 1 1GK Bartolomej Kuru (1987-04-06)6 April 1987 (aged 19) Austria Wien 2 2DF Niklas Lercher (1987-02-10)10 February 1987 (aged 19) 1860 Munich 3 2DF Daniel Gramann (1987-01-06)6 ...

Famous quotes containing the word austria:

    All the terrors of the French Republic, which held Austria in awe, were unable to command her diplomacy. But Napoleon sent to Vienna M. de Narbonne, one of the old noblesse, with the morals, manners, and name of that interest, saying, that it was indispensable to send to the old aristocracy of Europe men of the same connection, which, in fact, constitutes a sort of free- masonry. M. de Narbonne, in less than a fortnight, penetrated all the secrets of the imperial cabinet.
    Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)