The City of Surigao (: (sů-rēh-GAŮ) (Filipino: Lungsod ng Surigao; Surigaonon: Siyudad nan Surigao) is located at the northeasternmost tip of Mindanao Island in the Philippines and the capital of the province of Surigao del Norte. It has a total land area of 245.34 km2 which is roughly 1.4% of Caraga region. According to 2013 estimates, 175,378 people live in the city with an annual growth rate of 1.52%. An average of 573 persons live per square kilometer, the most densely populated urban area in Caraga region. The demonym for a Surigao resident is Surigaonon or Surigueño.
The absence of a fort in Surigao belies its significance and sphere of influence during the Spanish period. It was the capital of the expansive province of the same name from 1750 until its dissolution in 1911, covering a third of Mindanao Island's total land area. It is one of the oldest port towns in Mindanao, founded by Spanish colonizers in 1655. Today, Surigao is among the most important seaports in the country. The Asian Institute of Management ranks the city as among the most competitive small-sized cities in the Philippines, with an estimated total income of 600 million pesos in 2012.
The city has abundant mineral reserves including gold, iron, manganese, silica, cobalt, copper, chromite and among the world's largest nickel deposits in Nonoc Island. Diverse species of fish and aquatic life can be found within its territorial sea boundaries. The city falls under the tropical climate type and prone to brief afternoon downpours and thunderstorms. Its location makes it an ideal jump off point for adventure-seeking tourists who visit nearby islands of Siargao, Dinagat and Bucas Grande. It is also Mindanao's closest landmass to the Visayas region, separated 11 nautical miles by Surigao Strait and a 40-minute ferry ride to Panaon Island. Surigao is the center of politics, commerce, industry and education for the entire province as well as parts of neighboring provinces of Surigao del Sur, Agusan del Norte, Dinagat Islands, Bohol and Southern Leyte.