- J. R. Ackerley, author and literary editor of The Listener lived at Star and Garter Mansions from 1941 until his death in 1967
- Tony Adams, former Arsenal and England football captain, lived here post-rehab
- Gerry Anderson and Jim Henson, television puppeteers, at different times leased the same workshop (now demolished) in Rotherwood Road, Putney
- Clement Attlee, who served as Labour Party leader from 1935 to 1955 (from 1945 to 1951 as prime minister) was born at Putney in 1883.
- Edvard Beneš, second President of Czechoslovakia, lived in Gwendolen Avenue during his exile in London from October 1938 to the end of World War II
- Marc Bolan, singer and leader of the band T.Rex lived at 6 Schubert Road, Putney and died in a car crash in Queens Ride, Barnes on the border of Putney
- Peter Bonetti, Chelsea and Dundee United footballer, was born in Putney
- Sir Richard Branson, British entrepreneur
- Peter Brett, American writer
- Anna Calvi, singer and songwriter
- Rosa Nouchette Carey, writer of children's novels, died at her home in Keswick Road, Putney in 1909.
- Christopher Chope, Member of Parliament for Christchurch, was born in Putney
- Nick Clegg, Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and leader of the Liberal Democrats
- Thomas Cromwell, chief minister for Henry VIII and architect of the English Reformation, was born in Putney around 1485
- Sir Tom Courtenay, actor, films include Flood and The Golden Compass
- John Deacon, former bass guitarist of Queen, lives in west Putney.
- Jason Flemyng, actor, born in Putney
- E. M. Forster, author, lived at 22 Werter Road, Putney
- Henry Fuseli, Swiss-born British artist, professor of painting and keeper of the Royal Academy
- Constance Garnett, translator of War and Peace, Anna Karenina, Crime and Punishment, and other Russian literature
- Edward Gibbon, historian, born in Putney, and gave his name to the local telephone exchange
- Countess of Guildford, resident of Putney Hill, 1825
- Kenelm Lee Guinness, racing driver, started the KLG spark plug factory in Putney and lived in Kingston Hill
- Penny Irving, actress (The Benny Hill Show, Carry On, Are You Being Served?)
- Leon Jackson, Scottish singer and winner of The X Factor in 2007
- Robin Knox-Johnston, yachtsman, born in Putney
- Simon Le Bon, lead singer of pop group Duran Duran, lives on Upper Richmond Road in West Putney with his wife, Yasmin
- Laurie Lee, author, lived and worked as a building labourer in Putney during the 1930s
- Commander Charles Lightoller, the most senior officer to survive the Titanic disaster, lived at 60A Upper Richmond Road
- David Luiz, Chelsea F.C. and Brazilian international footballer
- James Macpherson, translator and author of the Ossian Poems
- David McKee, creator of Mr Benn the popular UK television programme for children, first broadcast on BBC1 in the early 1970s. Mr Benn lives in London at 52 Festive Road; David McKee used to live "next door" at 54 Festing Road, where current residents have come together to install an engraved paving slab in his honor. ("I think it was because in the first book I drew myself looking out of the window, and I thought it would be quite nice to have him next door," said McKee.).
- Bobby Moore, England football world cup winning hero, lived in Putney in his later years
- JP Morgan, US financier, lived in Dover House, Putney Heath
- George Newnes, publishing magnate, lived at Putney Heath
- Lawrence Oates, who uttered the most famous of famous last words ("I am just going outside and may be some time.") on the 1910-13 British Antarctic Expedition, born and grew up in Putney
- William Pitt the Younger, former Prime Minister, lived and died in Bowling-Green House at Putney Heath
- Justin Rose, golfer, has a flat in Putney.
- Sir Ronald Ross, discoverer of malaria transmission by mosquitoes, lived and died at Bath House, Putney Hill.
- Fred Russell, known as the "The Father of Modern Ventriloquism", remembered by blue plaque, lived in Lower Richmond Road near Putney Bridge
- Sir Oswald Stoll, Australian-born British theatre and film magnate, 33 Putney Hill
- Algernon Charles Swinburne, poet and Nobel prize nominee, lived and died at The Pines, at the foot of Putney Hill
- Emile Heskey, English footballer, currently plays for Aston Villa F.C.
- Daley Thompson, former decathlete
- Alan Thornhill, sculptor whose nine large works form the permanent Putney Sculpture Trail along the Thames
- Theodore Watts-Dunton, who looked after Swinburne
- Nigel Williams, author
- Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, author of Frankenstein, lived in Putney at Layton House in 1839, and White House in 1843
- Leonard Woolf, husband of Virginia Woolf, grew up in Putney
- Fernando Torres, Spanish footballer, plays for Chelsea F.C.
- Lazee, A Swedish rapper, lived in Putney when he was a teenager
- Taio Cruz, UK RnB singer
- Stefan Abingdon, of the band The Midnight Beast
- Ashley Horne, of the band The Midnight Beast
Read more about this topic: Putney
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