Persistent Truncus Arteriosus - Causes

Causes

Most of the time, this defect occurs spontaneously. Genetic disorders, and teratogens (viruses, metabolic imbalance, and industrial or pharmacological agents) have been associated as possible causes. Up to 50% (varies in studies) of cases are associated with chromosome 22q11 deletions (DiGeorge Syndrome). The neural crest, specifically a population known as the cardiac neural crest, directly contributes to the aorticopulmonary septum.

Microablation of the cardiac neural crest in developing chick embryos and genetic anomalies affecting this population of cells in rodents results in persistent truncus arteriosus.

Numerous perturbations affecting the cardiac neural crest have been associated with persistent truncus arteriosus, some of which include growth factors (fibroblast growth factor 8 and bone morphogenetic protein), transcription factors (T-box, Pax, Nkx2-5, GATA-6, and Forkhead), and gap junction proteins (Connexin). The cardiac neural crest also contributes the smooth muscle of the great arteries.

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