Neuron - History

History

Further information: History of neuroscience

The term neuron was coined by the German anatomist Heinrich Wilhelm Waldeyer. The neuron's place as the primary functional unit of the nervous system was first recognized in the early 20th century through the work of the Spanish anatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal. Ramón y Cajal proposed that neurons were discrete cells that communicated with each other via specialized junctions, or spaces, between cells. This became known as the neuron doctrine, one of the central tenets of modern neuroscience. To observe the structure of individual neurons, Ramón y Cajal improved a silver staining process known as Golgi's method, which had been developed by his rival, Camillo Golgi. Cajal's improvement, which involved a technique he called "double impregnation", is still in use. The silver impregnation stains are an extremely useful method for neuroanatomical investigations because, for reasons unknown, it stains a very small percentage of cells in a tissue, so one is able to see the complete micro structure of individual neurons without much overlap from other cells in the densely packed brain.

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