A Navvab or Nawaab (Urdu: نوّاب), is an honorific title ratified and bestowed by the reigning Mughal Emperor to semi-autonomous Muslim rulers of princely states in South Asia. "Nawab" usually refers to males; the female equivalent is "Begum" or "Nawab Begum". The primary duties of a Nawab was to uphold the sovereignty of the Mughal Emperor alongside with the administration of a certain province.
The title of "Nawab" was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similar to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state, for various services to the Government of British India. In some cases, these titles were also accompanied by jagir grants, either in cash revenues and allowances or land-holdings. In the British Punjab, North West Frontier Province, Sindh and Balochistan, some of the chiefs or Sardars of large or important tribes were also given the title, in addition to traditional titles already held by virtue of chieftainship.
The term "Nawab" was originally used for the Subahdar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a Subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire.